Igor Rouzine, John Coffin and Leor Weinberger provide a Perspective on the work of Pleuni Pennings and colleagues who look at the underlying population genetics processes behind drug resistance in HIV. Their work allows us to infer the size of the viral population in a patient.
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Very little is known about what is happening at intermediate levels during virus infection. In this paper Nicolas Tromas and colleagues use flow cytometry to measure the infection status of thousands of individual cells in virus-infected plants. They show that although viruses replicate at astronomical rates within a cell, their rate of spread between individual cells can be much slower.
Domestication followed by breed formation has likely left detectable signatures within the genome of modern cattle. Saber Qanbari and colleagues show strong signals of selection near to several candidate genes related to domesticated phenotypes such as coat coloring, neurobehavioral functioning and sensory perception.
The main underlying cause of heart attacks and strokes is atherosclerosis. Johan Björkegren and colleagues examined atherosclerosis gene expression and regression in response to plasma cholesterol lowering. Their findings suggest that early prevention with plasma cholesterol lowering in individuals with increased risk for heart attack or stroke would be particularly useful.
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