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Research Article

APOBEC3G-Induced Hypermutation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Is Typically a Discrete “All or Nothing” Phenomenon

  • Andrew E. Armitage,

    Affiliation: MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Koen Deforche,

    Affiliation: Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

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  • Chih-hao Chang,

    Affiliation: MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Edmund Wee,

    Affiliation: MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Beatrice Kramer,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • John J. Welch,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Jan Gerstoft,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, The National University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Lars Fugger,

    Affiliations: MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom, Department of Clinical Neurology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Andrew McMichael,

    Affiliation: MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Andrew Rambaut mail,

    astrid.iversen@imm.ox.ac.uk (AKNI); a.rambaut@ed.ac.uk (AR)

    Affiliation: Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Astrid K. N. Iversen mail

    astrid.iversen@imm.ox.ac.uk (AKNI); a.rambaut@ed.ac.uk (AR)

    Affiliations: MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom, The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Published: March 22, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002550

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