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Research Article

Evolutionary Dynamics of Human Toll-Like Receptors and Their Different Contributions to Host Defense

  • Luis B. Barreiro,

    Affiliations: Institut Pasteur, Human Evolutionary Genetics, CNRS, URA3012, Paris, France, Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Meriem Ben-Ali,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Human Evolutionary Genetics, CNRS, URA3012, Paris, France

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  • Hélène Quach,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Human Evolutionary Genetics, CNRS, URA3012, Paris, France

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  • Guillaume Laval,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Human Evolutionary Genetics, CNRS, URA3012, Paris, France

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  • Etienne Patin,

    Affiliations: Institut Pasteur, Human Evolutionary Genetics, CNRS, URA3012, Paris, France, Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U550, Necker Medical School, Paris, France

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  • Joseph K. Pickrell,

    Affiliation: Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Christiane Bouchier,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Plate-forme Génomique, Pasteur Genopole, Paris, France

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  • Magali Tichit,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Plate-forme Génomique, Pasteur Genopole, Paris, France

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  • Olivier Neyrolles,

    Affiliation: IPBS/CNRS, Toulouse, France

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  • Brigitte Gicquel,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Mycobacterial Genetics Unit, Paris, France

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  • Judith R. Kidd,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Kenneth K. Kidd,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Alexandre Alcaïs,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U550, Necker Medical School, Paris, France, University Paris René Descartes, Necker Medical School, Paris, France

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  • Josiane Ragimbeau,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Cytokine Signaling Unit, CNRS, URA1961, Paris, France

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  • Sandra Pellegrini,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Cytokine Signaling Unit, CNRS, URA1961, Paris, France

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  • Laurent Abel,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U550, Necker Medical School, Paris, France, University Paris René Descartes, Necker Medical School, Paris, France, Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Jean-Laurent Casanova,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U550, Necker Medical School, Paris, France, University Paris René Descartes, Necker Medical School, Paris, France, Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Lluís Quintana-Murci mail

    quintana@pasteur.fr

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Human Evolutionary Genetics, CNRS, URA3012, Paris, France

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  • Published: July 17, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000562

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