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Research Article

Ion Channel Clustering at the Axon Initial Segment and Node of Ranvier Evolved Sequentially in Early Chordates

  • Alexis S. Hill,

    Affiliations: Penn Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Mahoney Institute of Neurological Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Atsuo Nishino,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

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  • Koichi Nakajo,

    Affiliation: National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan

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  • Giuxin Zhang,

    Affiliations: Penn Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Mahoney Institute of Neurological Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Jaime R. Fineman,

    Affiliations: Penn Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Mahoney Institute of Neurological Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Michael E. Selzer,

    Affiliations: Penn Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Mahoney Institute of Neurological Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Office of Research and Development, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, D.C., United States of America

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  • Yasushi Okamura,

    Affiliation: Department of Integrative Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

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  • Edward C. Cooper mail

    edc@mail.med.upenn.edu

    Affiliations: Penn Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Mahoney Institute of Neurological Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Published: December 26, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000317

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