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Research Article

Evidence of Gene–Environment Interactions between Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Loci and Established Environmental Risk Factors

  • Stefan Nickels,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Thérèse Truong,

    Affiliation: Inserm (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), CESP (Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer, Villejuif, France

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  • Rebecca Hein,

    Affiliation: PMV Research Group at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany

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  • Kristen Stevens,

    Affiliation: Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Katharina Buck,

    Affiliation: Department of Preventive Oncology, National Center of Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Sabine Behrens,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Ursula Eilber,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Martina Schmidt,

    Affiliation: Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Lothar Häberle,

    Affiliation: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany

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  • Alina Vrieling,

    Affiliations: Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, Department for Health Evidence, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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  • Mia Gaudet,

    Affiliation: Epidemiology Research Program, Division of Cancer Epidemiology, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Jonine Figueroa,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Nils Schoof,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Amanda B. Spurdle,

    Affiliation: Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, Queensland, Australia

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  • Anja Rudolph,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Peter A. Fasching,

    Affiliations: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • John L. Hopper,

    Affiliation: Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

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  • Enes Makalic,

    Affiliation: Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

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  • Daniel F. Schmidt,

    Affiliation: Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

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  • Melissa C. Southey,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

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  • Matthias W. Beckmann,

    Affiliation: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany

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  • Arif B. Ekici,

    Affiliation: Institute of Human Genetics, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany

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  • Olivia Fletcher,

    Affiliation: Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom

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  • Lorna Gibson,

    Affiliation: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Isabel dos Santos Silva,

    Affiliation: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Julian Peto,

    Affiliation: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Manjeet K. Humphreys,

    Affiliation: Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Jean Wang,

    Affiliation: Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Emilie Cordina-Duverger,

    Affiliation: Inserm (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), CESP (Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer, Villejuif, France

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  • Florence Menegaux,

    Affiliation: Inserm (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), CESP (Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer, Villejuif, France

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  • Børge G. Nordestgaard,

    Affiliation: Copenhagen General Population Study and Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Stig E. Bojesen,

    Affiliation: Copenhagen General Population Study and Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Charlotte Lanng,

    Affiliation: Department of Breast Surgery, Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Hoda Anton-Culver,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America

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  • Argyrios Ziogas,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America

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  • Leslie Bernstein,

    Affiliation: Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California, United States of America

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  • Christina A. Clarke,

    Affiliations: Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, California, United States of America, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Hermann Brenner,

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Heiko Müller,

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Volker Arndt,

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Christa Stegmaier,

    Affiliation: Saarland Cancer Registry, Saarbrücken, Germany

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  • Hiltrud Brauch,

    Affiliations: Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

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  • Thomas Brüning,

    Affiliation: Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum, Germany

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  • Volker Harth,

    Affiliations: Institute and Outpatient Clinic of Occupational Medicine, Saarland University Medical Center and Saarland University Faculty of Medicine, Homburg, Germany, Institute for Occupational Medicine and Maritime Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

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  • The GENICA Network,

    Affiliations: Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany, Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum, Germany, Institute and Outpatient Clinic of Occupational Medicine, Saarland University Medical Center and Saarland University Faculty of Medicine, Homburg, Germany, Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn gGmbH, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn, Germany, Institute of Pathology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany, Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Arto Mannermaa,

    Affiliations: School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, Biocenter Kuopio, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

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  • Vesa Kataja,

    Affiliations: Biocenter Kuopio, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

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  • Veli-Matti Kosma,

    Affiliations: School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, Biocenter Kuopio, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

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  • Jaana M. Hartikainen,

    Affiliations: School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, Biocenter Kuopio, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

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  • kConFab,

    Affiliation: The Kathleen Cuningham Foundation for Resesarch into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab), Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Australia

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  • AOCS Management Group,

    Affiliations: Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, Queensland, Australia, The Kathleen Cuningham Foundation for Resesarch into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab), Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Australia

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  • Diether Lambrechts,

    Affiliation: Vesalius Research Center (VRC), VIB, Leuven, Belgium

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  • Dominiek Smeets,

    Affiliation: Vesalius Research Center (VRC), VIB, Leuven, Belgium

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  • Patrick Neven,

    Affiliation: Multidisciplinary Breast Center, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium

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  • Robert Paridaens,

    Affiliation: Multidisciplinary Breast Center, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium

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  • Dieter Flesch-Janys,

    Affiliation: Department of Cancer Epidemiology/Clinical Cancer Registry and Institute for Medical Biometrics and Epidemiology, University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

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  • Nadia Obi,

    Affiliation: Department of Cancer Epidemiology/Clinical Cancer Registry and Institute for Medical Biometrics and Epidemiology, University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

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  • Shan Wang-Gohrke,

    Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany

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  • Fergus J. Couch,

    Affiliation: Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Janet E. Olson,

    Affiliation: Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Celine M. Vachon,

    Affiliation: Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Graham G. Giles,

    Affiliations: Cancer Epidemiology Centre, The Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic, and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Australia

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  • Gianluca Severi,

    Affiliations: Cancer Epidemiology Centre, The Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic, and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Australia

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  • Laura Baglietto,

    Affiliations: Cancer Epidemiology Centre, The Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic, and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Australia

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  • Kenneth Offit,

    Affiliation: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Esther M. John,

    Affiliations: Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, California, United States of America, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Alexander Miron,

    Affiliation: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Irene L. Andrulis,

    Affiliations: Ontario Cancer Genetics Network, Fred A. Litwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

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  • Julia A. Knight,

    Affiliations: Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada, Division of Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

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  • Gord Glendon,

    Affiliation: Ontario Cancer Genetics Network, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada

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  • Anna Marie Mulligan,

    Affiliations: Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

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  • Stephen J. Chanock,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jolanta Lissowska,

    Affiliation: Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, M. Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland

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  • Jianjun Liu,

    Affiliation: Human Genetics, Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

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  • Angela Cox,

    Affiliation: Institute for Cancer Studies, Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

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  • Helen Cramp,

    Affiliation: Institute for Cancer Studies, Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

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  • Dan Connley,

    Affiliation: Institute for Cancer Studies, Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

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  • Sabapathy Balasubramanian,

    Affiliation: Academic Unit of Surgical Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

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  • Alison M. Dunning,

    Affiliation: Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Mitul Shah,

    Affiliation: Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Amy Trentham-Dietz,

    Affiliation: University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

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  • Polly Newcomb,

    Affiliations: University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Linda Titus,

    Affiliation: Department of Community and Family Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Dartmouth Medical School, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire, United States of America

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  • Kathleen Egan,

    Affiliation: Division of Population Sciences, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, United States of America

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  • Elizabeth K. Cahoon,

    Affiliation: Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Preetha Rajaraman,

    Affiliation: Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Alice J. Sigurdson,

    Affiliation: Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Michele M. Doody,

    Affiliation: Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Pascal Guénel,

    Affiliation: Inserm (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), CESP (Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer, Villejuif, France

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  • Paul D. P. Pharoah,

    Affiliation: Department of Oncology and Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Marjanka K. Schmidt,

    Affiliation: Division of Molecular Pathology and Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Per Hall,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Doug F. Easton,

    Affiliation: Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Montserrat Garcia-Closas,

    Affiliations: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America, Sections of Epidemiology and Genetics, Institute of Cancer Research and Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Centre, London, United Kingdom

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  • Roger L. Milne,

    Affiliation: Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group, Human Cancer Genetics Programme, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain

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  • Jenny Chang-Claude mail

    j.chang-claude@dkfz.de

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Published: March 27, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003284

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