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Research Article

Genetic and Anatomical Basis of the Barrier Separating Wakefulness and Anesthetic-Induced Unresponsiveness

  • William J. Joiner equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: William J. Joiner, Eliot B. Friedman

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    X
  • Eliot B. Friedman equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: William J. Joiner, Eliot B. Friedman

    Affiliations: Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Hsiao-Tung Hung,

    Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Kyunghee Koh,

    Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Mallory Sowcik,

    Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Amita Sehgal,

    Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Max B. Kelz mail

    kelzma@uphs.upenn.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Published: September 05, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003605

About the Authors

William J. Joiner
Department of Pharmacology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Eliot B. Friedman, Hsiao-Tung Hung, Mallory Sowcik, Amita Sehgal
Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Eliot B. Friedman
Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Kyunghee Koh
Department of Neuroscience, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Max B. Kelz
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: kelzma@uphs.upenn.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: WJJ EBF MBK. Performed the experiments: WJJ EBF HTH MS. Analyzed the data: WJJ EBF MBK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: WJJ EBF KK AS MBK. Wrote the paper: WJJ EBF AS MBK.