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Research Article

Continent-Wide Decoupling of Y-Chromosomal Genetic Variation from Language and Geography in Native South Americans

  • Lutz Roewer equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Lutz Roewer, Michael Nothnagel

    lutz.roewer@charite.de

    Affiliation: Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Department of Forensic Genetics, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany

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  • Michael Nothnagel equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Lutz Roewer, Michael Nothnagel

    Affiliations: Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany, Institute of Medical Informatics and Statistics, Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany

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  • Leonor Gusmão,

    Affiliations: Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, Universidade Federal do Pará, Laboratório de Genética Humana e Médica, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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  • Veronica Gomes,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

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  • Miguel González,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

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  • Daniel Corach,

    Affiliation: Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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  • Andrea Sala,

    Affiliation: Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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  • Evguenia Alechine,

    Affiliation: Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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  • Teresinha Palha,

    Affiliation: Universidade Federal do Pará, Laboratório de Genética Humana e Médica, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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  • Ney Santos,

    Affiliation: Universidade Federal do Pará, Laboratório de Genética Humana e Médica, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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  • Andrea Ribeiro-dos-Santos,

    Affiliation: Universidade Federal do Pará, Laboratório de Genética Humana e Médica, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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  • Maria Geppert,

    Affiliation: Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Department of Forensic Genetics, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany

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  • Sascha Willuweit,

    Affiliation: Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Department of Forensic Genetics, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany

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  • Marion Nagy,

    Affiliation: Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Department of Forensic Genetics, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany

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  • Sarah Zweynert,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany

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  • Miriam Baeta,

    Affiliation: Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

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  • Carolina Núñez,

    Affiliation: Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

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  • Begoña Martínez-Jarreta,

    Affiliation: Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

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  • Fabricio González-Andrade,

    Affiliation: Science and Technology Department, Ministry of Public Health, Quito, Ecuador

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  • Elizeu Fagundes de Carvalho,

    Affiliation: Laboratorio de Diagnósticos por DNA, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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  • Dayse Aparecida da Silva,

    Affiliation: Laboratorio de Diagnósticos por DNA, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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  • Juan José Builes,

    Affiliations: GENES Ltda., Laboratorio Genetica Forense y Huellas Digitales del DNA, Medellín, Colombia, Instituto de Biología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

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  • Daniel Turbón,

    Affiliation: Unitat d'Antropologia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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  • Ana Maria Lopez Parra,

    Affiliation: Laboratorio de Genetica Forense, Departamento de Toxicología y Legislación Sanitaria, Facultat de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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  • Eduardo Arroyo-Pardo,

    Affiliation: Laboratorio de Genetica Forense, Departamento de Toxicología y Legislación Sanitaria, Facultat de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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  • Ulises Toscanini,

    Affiliation: PRICAI–Fundación Favaloro, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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  • Lisbeth Borjas,

    Affiliation: Laboratorio de Genetica Molecular, Unidad de Genetica Medica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela

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  • Claudia Barletta,

    Affiliation: Laboratorio de Genética Humana, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, UNMSM–Universidad, Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru

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  • Elizabeth Ewart,

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Sidney Santos,

    Affiliation: Universidade Federal do Pará, Laboratório de Genética Humana e Médica, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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  • Michael Krawczak

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Informatics and Statistics, Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany

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  • Published: April 11, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003460

About the Authors

Lutz Roewer, Maria Geppert, Sascha Willuweit, Marion Nagy
Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Department of Forensic Genetics, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Michael Nothnagel
Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
Michael Nothnagel, Michael Krawczak
Institute of Medical Informatics and Statistics, Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
Leonor Gusmão, Veronica Gomes, Miguel González
Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
Leonor Gusmão, Teresinha Palha, Ney Santos, Andrea Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Sidney Santos
Universidade Federal do Pará, Laboratório de Genética Humana e Médica, Belém, Pará, Brazil
Daniel Corach, Andrea Sala, Evguenia Alechine
Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Sarah Zweynert
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Miriam Baeta, Carolina Núñez, Begoña Martínez-Jarreta
Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain
Fabricio González-Andrade
Science and Technology Department, Ministry of Public Health, Quito, Ecuador
Elizeu Fagundes de Carvalho, Dayse Aparecida da Silva
Laboratorio de Diagnósticos por DNA, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Juan José Builes
GENES Ltda., Laboratorio Genetica Forense y Huellas Digitales del DNA, Medellín, Colombia
Juan José Builes
Instituto de Biología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
Daniel Turbón
Unitat d'Antropologia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Ana Maria Lopez Parra, Eduardo Arroyo-Pardo
Laboratorio de Genetica Forense, Departamento de Toxicología y Legislación Sanitaria, Facultat de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Ulises Toscanini
PRICAI–Fundación Favaloro, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Lisbeth Borjas
Laboratorio de Genetica Molecular, Unidad de Genetica Medica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela
Claudia Barletta
Laboratorio de Genética Humana, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, UNMSM–Universidad, Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru
Elizabeth Ewart
Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: lutz.roewer@charite.de

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: L Roewer, M Nothnagel, L Gusmão, D Corach, A Ribeiro-dos-Santos, M Nagy, B Martínez-Jarreta, F González-Andrade, E Fagundes de Carvalho, JJ Builes, D Turbón, E Arroyo-Pardo, S Santos, M Krawczak. Performed the experiments: V Gomes, M González, A Sala, E Alechine, T Palha, N Santos, M Geppert, S Zweynert, M Baeta, C Núñez, DA da Silva, AM Lopez Parra, U Toscanini, L Borjas, C Barletta. Analyzed the data: L Roewer, M Nothnagel, L Gusmão, D Corach, S Willuweit, M Krawczak. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: L Roewer, M Nothnagel, L Gusmão, D Corach, B Martínez-Jarreta, E Fagundes de Carvalho, J J Builes, E Arroyo-Pardo, L Borjas, S Santos, M Krawczak. Wrote the paper: L Roewer, M Nothnagel, L Gusmão, E Ewart, M Krawczak.