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Research Article

Deleterious Alleles in the Human Genome Are on Average Younger Than Neutral Alleles of the Same Frequency

  • Adam Kiezun,

    Affiliations: Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Cancer Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Sara L. Pulit,

    Affiliation: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Laurent C. Francioli,

    Affiliation: Departments of Medical Genetics and of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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  • Freerk van Dijk,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

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  • Morris Swertz,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

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  • Dorret I. Boomsma,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Psychology, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Cornelia M. van Duijn,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • P. Eline Slagboom,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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  • G. J. B. van Ommen,

    Affiliation: Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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  • Cisca Wijmenga,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

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  • Genome of the Netherlands Consortium,

    Membership of the Genome of the Netherlands Consortium is provided in the Acknowledgments.

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  • Paul I. W. de Bakker,

    Affiliations: Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Departments of Medical Genetics and of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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  • Shamil R. Sunyaev mail

    ssunyaev@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

    Affiliations: Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Published: February 28, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003301

About the Authors

Adam Kiezun, Paul I. W. de Bakker, Shamil R. Sunyaev
Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Adam Kiezun, Sara L. Pulit, Paul I. W. de Bakker, Shamil R. Sunyaev
Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
Adam Kiezun
Cancer Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
Laurent C. Francioli, Paul I. W. de Bakker
Departments of Medical Genetics and of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Freerk van Dijk, Morris Swertz, Cisca Wijmenga
Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Dorret I. Boomsma
Department of Biological Psychology, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Cornelia M. van Duijn
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
P. Eline Slagboom
Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
G. J. B. van Ommen
Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

Corresponding Author

Email: ssunyaev@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SRS AK SLP PIWdB. Performed the experiments: AK SLP LCF. Analyzed the data: SRS AK SLP PIWdB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LCF FvD MS DIB CMvD PES GJBvO CW PIWdB Genome of the Netherlands Consortium. Wrote the paper: SRS AK PIWdB.