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Research Article

Evidence of Gene–Environment Interactions between Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Loci and Established Environmental Risk Factors

  • Stefan Nickels,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Thérèse Truong,

    Affiliation: Inserm (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), CESP (Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer, Villejuif, France

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  • Rebecca Hein,

    Affiliation: PMV Research Group at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany

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  • Kristen Stevens,

    Affiliation: Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Katharina Buck,

    Affiliation: Department of Preventive Oncology, National Center of Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Sabine Behrens,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Ursula Eilber,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Martina Schmidt,

    Affiliation: Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Lothar Häberle,

    Affiliation: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany

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  • Alina Vrieling,

    Affiliations: Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, Department for Health Evidence, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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  • Mia Gaudet,

    Affiliation: Epidemiology Research Program, Division of Cancer Epidemiology, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Jonine Figueroa,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Nils Schoof,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Amanda B. Spurdle,

    Affiliation: Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, Queensland, Australia

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  • Anja Rudolph,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Peter A. Fasching,

    Affiliations: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • John L. Hopper,

    Affiliation: Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

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  • Enes Makalic,

    Affiliation: Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

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  • Daniel F. Schmidt,

    Affiliation: Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

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  • Melissa C. Southey,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

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  • Matthias W. Beckmann,

    Affiliation: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany

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  • Arif B. Ekici,

    Affiliation: Institute of Human Genetics, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany

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  • Olivia Fletcher,

    Affiliation: Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom

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  • Lorna Gibson,

    Affiliation: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Isabel dos Santos Silva,

    Affiliation: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Julian Peto,

    Affiliation: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Manjeet K. Humphreys,

    Affiliation: Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Jean Wang,

    Affiliation: Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Emilie Cordina-Duverger,

    Affiliation: Inserm (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), CESP (Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer, Villejuif, France

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  • Florence Menegaux,

    Affiliation: Inserm (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), CESP (Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer, Villejuif, France

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  • Børge G. Nordestgaard,

    Affiliation: Copenhagen General Population Study and Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Stig E. Bojesen,

    Affiliation: Copenhagen General Population Study and Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Charlotte Lanng,

    Affiliation: Department of Breast Surgery, Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Hoda Anton-Culver,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America

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  • Argyrios Ziogas,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America

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  • Leslie Bernstein,

    Affiliation: Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California, United States of America

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  • Christina A. Clarke,

    Affiliations: Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, California, United States of America, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Hermann Brenner,

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Heiko Müller,

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Volker Arndt,

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Christa Stegmaier,

    Affiliation: Saarland Cancer Registry, Saarbrücken, Germany

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  • Hiltrud Brauch,

    Affiliations: Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

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  • Thomas Brüning,

    Affiliation: Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum, Germany

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  • Volker Harth,

    Affiliations: Institute and Outpatient Clinic of Occupational Medicine, Saarland University Medical Center and Saarland University Faculty of Medicine, Homburg, Germany, Institute for Occupational Medicine and Maritime Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

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  • The GENICA Network,

    Affiliations: Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany, Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum, Germany, Institute and Outpatient Clinic of Occupational Medicine, Saarland University Medical Center and Saarland University Faculty of Medicine, Homburg, Germany, Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn gGmbH, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn, Germany, Institute of Pathology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany, Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Arto Mannermaa,

    Affiliations: School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, Biocenter Kuopio, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

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  • Vesa Kataja,

    Affiliations: Biocenter Kuopio, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

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  • Veli-Matti Kosma,

    Affiliations: School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, Biocenter Kuopio, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

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  • Jaana M. Hartikainen,

    Affiliations: School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, Biocenter Kuopio, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

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  • kConFab,

    Affiliation: The Kathleen Cuningham Foundation for Resesarch into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab), Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Australia

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  • AOCS Management Group,

    Affiliations: Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, Queensland, Australia, The Kathleen Cuningham Foundation for Resesarch into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab), Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Australia

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  • Diether Lambrechts,

    Affiliation: Vesalius Research Center (VRC), VIB, Leuven, Belgium

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  • Dominiek Smeets,

    Affiliation: Vesalius Research Center (VRC), VIB, Leuven, Belgium

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  • Patrick Neven,

    Affiliation: Multidisciplinary Breast Center, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium

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  • Robert Paridaens,

    Affiliation: Multidisciplinary Breast Center, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium

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  • Dieter Flesch-Janys,

    Affiliation: Department of Cancer Epidemiology/Clinical Cancer Registry and Institute for Medical Biometrics and Epidemiology, University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

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  • Nadia Obi,

    Affiliation: Department of Cancer Epidemiology/Clinical Cancer Registry and Institute for Medical Biometrics and Epidemiology, University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

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  • Shan Wang-Gohrke,

    Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany

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  • Fergus J. Couch,

    Affiliation: Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Janet E. Olson,

    Affiliation: Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Celine M. Vachon,

    Affiliation: Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Graham G. Giles,

    Affiliations: Cancer Epidemiology Centre, The Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic, and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Australia

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  • Gianluca Severi,

    Affiliations: Cancer Epidemiology Centre, The Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic, and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Australia

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  • Laura Baglietto,

    Affiliations: Cancer Epidemiology Centre, The Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic, and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Australia

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  • Kenneth Offit,

    Affiliation: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Esther M. John,

    Affiliations: Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, California, United States of America, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Alexander Miron,

    Affiliation: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Irene L. Andrulis,

    Affiliations: Ontario Cancer Genetics Network, Fred A. Litwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

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  • Julia A. Knight,

    Affiliations: Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada, Division of Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

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  • Gord Glendon,

    Affiliation: Ontario Cancer Genetics Network, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada

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  • Anna Marie Mulligan,

    Affiliations: Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

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  • Stephen J. Chanock,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jolanta Lissowska,

    Affiliation: Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, M. Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland

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  • Jianjun Liu,

    Affiliation: Human Genetics, Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

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  • Angela Cox,

    Affiliation: Institute for Cancer Studies, Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

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  • Helen Cramp,

    Affiliation: Institute for Cancer Studies, Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

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  • Dan Connley,

    Affiliation: Institute for Cancer Studies, Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

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  • Sabapathy Balasubramanian,

    Affiliation: Academic Unit of Surgical Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

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  • Alison M. Dunning,

    Affiliation: Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Mitul Shah,

    Affiliation: Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Amy Trentham-Dietz,

    Affiliation: University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

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  • Polly Newcomb,

    Affiliations: University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Linda Titus,

    Affiliation: Department of Community and Family Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Dartmouth Medical School, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire, United States of America

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  • Kathleen Egan,

    Affiliation: Division of Population Sciences, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, United States of America

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  • Elizabeth K. Cahoon,

    Affiliation: Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Preetha Rajaraman,

    Affiliation: Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Alice J. Sigurdson,

    Affiliation: Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Michele M. Doody,

    Affiliation: Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Pascal Guénel,

    Affiliation: Inserm (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), CESP (Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer, Villejuif, France

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  • Paul D. P. Pharoah,

    Affiliation: Department of Oncology and Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Marjanka K. Schmidt,

    Affiliation: Division of Molecular Pathology and Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Per Hall,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Doug F. Easton,

    Affiliation: Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Montserrat Garcia-Closas,

    Affiliations: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America, Sections of Epidemiology and Genetics, Institute of Cancer Research and Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Centre, London, United Kingdom

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  • Roger L. Milne,

    Affiliation: Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group, Human Cancer Genetics Programme, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain

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  • Jenny Chang-Claude mail

    j.chang-claude@dkfz.de

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Published: March 27, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003284

About the Authors

Stefan Nickels, Sabine Behrens, Ursula Eilber, Alina Vrieling, Anja Rudolph, Jenny Chang-Claude
Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
Thérèse Truong, Emilie Cordina-Duverger, Florence Menegaux, Pascal Guénel
Inserm (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), CESP (Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer, Villejuif, France
Rebecca Hein
PMV Research Group at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
Kristen Stevens, Janet E. Olson, Celine M. Vachon
Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America
Katharina Buck
Department of Preventive Oncology, National Center of Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg, Germany
Martina Schmidt
Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
Lothar Häberle, Peter A. Fasching, Matthias W. Beckmann
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
Alina Vrieling
Department for Health Evidence, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Mia Gaudet
Epidemiology Research Program, Division of Cancer Epidemiology, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
Jonine Figueroa, Stephen J. Chanock, Per Hall, Montserrat Garcia-Closas
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
Nils Schoof
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Amanda B. Spurdle, AOCS Management Group
Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, Queensland, Australia
Peter A. Fasching
Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
John L. Hopper, Enes Makalic, Daniel F. Schmidt
Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Melissa C. Southey
Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Arif B. Ekici
Institute of Human Genetics, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
Olivia Fletcher
Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom
Lorna Gibson, Isabel dos Santos Silva, Julian Peto
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
Manjeet K. Humphreys, Jean Wang, Doug F. Easton
Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Børge G. Nordestgaard, Stig E. Bojesen
Copenhagen General Population Study and Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Charlotte Lanng
Department of Breast Surgery, Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas
Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America
Leslie Bernstein
Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California, United States of America
Christina A. Clarke, Esther M. John
Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, California, United States of America
Christina A. Clarke, Esther M. John
Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America
Hermann Brenner, Heiko Müller, Volker Arndt
Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
Christa Stegmaier
Saarland Cancer Registry, Saarbrücken, Germany
Hiltrud Brauch, The GENICA Network
Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany
Hiltrud Brauch, The GENICA Network
University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
Thomas Brüning, The GENICA Network
Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum, Germany
Volker Harth, The GENICA Network
Institute and Outpatient Clinic of Occupational Medicine, Saarland University Medical Center and Saarland University Faculty of Medicine, Homburg, Germany
Volker Harth
Institute for Occupational Medicine and Maritime Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
The GENICA Network
Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn gGmbH, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn, Germany
The GENICA Network
Institute of Pathology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
The GENICA Network
Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
Arto Mannermaa, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M. Hartikainen
School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M. Hartikainen
Biocenter Kuopio, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
Vesa Kataja
School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
kConFab, AOCS Management Group
The Kathleen Cuningham Foundation for Resesarch into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab), Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Australia
Diether Lambrechts, Dominiek Smeets
Vesalius Research Center (VRC), VIB, Leuven, Belgium
Patrick Neven, Robert Paridaens
Multidisciplinary Breast Center, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium
Dieter Flesch-Janys, Nadia Obi
Department of Cancer Epidemiology/Clinical Cancer Registry and Institute for Medical Biometrics and Epidemiology, University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
Shan Wang-Gohrke
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
Fergus J. Couch
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America
Graham G. Giles, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto
Cancer Epidemiology Centre, The Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia
Graham G. Giles, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto
Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic, and Analytic Epidemiology, University of Melbourne, Australia
Kenneth Offit
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States of America
Alexander Miron
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Irene L. Andrulis
Ontario Cancer Genetics Network, Fred A. Litwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada
Irene L. Andrulis
Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Julia A. Knight
Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada
Julia A. Knight
Division of Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Gord Glendon
Ontario Cancer Genetics Network, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada
Anna Marie Mulligan
Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada
Anna Marie Mulligan
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Jolanta Lissowska
Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, M. Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland
Jianjun Liu
Human Genetics, Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
Angela Cox, Helen Cramp, Dan Connley
Institute for Cancer Studies, Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
Sabapathy Balasubramanian
Academic Unit of Surgical Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
Alison M. Dunning, Mitul Shah
Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Amy Trentham-Dietz, Polly Newcomb
University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America
Polly Newcomb
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Linda Titus
Department of Community and Family Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Dartmouth Medical School, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire, United States of America
Kathleen Egan
Division of Population Sciences, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, United States of America
Elizabeth K. Cahoon, Preetha Rajaraman, Alice J. Sigurdson, Michele M. Doody
Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
Paul D. P. Pharoah
Department of Oncology and Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Marjanka K. Schmidt
Division of Molecular Pathology and Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Montserrat Garcia-Closas
Sections of Epidemiology and Genetics, Institute of Cancer Research and Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Centre, London, United Kingdom
Roger L. Milne
Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group, Human Cancer Genetics Programme, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain

Corresponding Author

Email: j.chang-claude@dkfz.de

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: P Guénel, PDP Pharoah, MK Schmidt, P Hall, DF Easton, M Garcia-Closas, RL Milne, J Chang-Claude. Performed the experiments: AM Dunning. Analyzed the data: S Nickels, T Truong, R Hein, K Stevens, K Buck, S Behrens, U Eilber, M Schmidt, L Häberle, A Vrieling, M Gaudet, J Figueroa, N Schoof, AB Spurdle, A Rudolph, PA Fasching, J Chang-Claude. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JL Hopper, E Makalic, DF Schmidt, MC Southey, MW Beckman, AB Ekici, O Fletcher, L Gibson, I dos Santo Silva, J Peto, MK Humphreys, J Wang, E Cordina-Duverger, F Menegaux, BG Nordestgaard, SE Bojeson, C Lanng, H Anton-Culver, A Ziogas, L Bernstein, CA Clarke, H Brenner, H Müller, V Arndt, C Stegmaier, H Brauch, T Brüning, V Harth, A Mannermaa, V Kataj, V-M Kosma, JM Hartikainen, D Lambrechts, D Smeets, P Neven, R Paridaens, D Flesch-Janys, N Obi, S Wang-Gohrke, FJ Couch, JE Olson, CM Vachon, GG Giles, G Severi, L Baglietto, K Offit, EM John, A Miron, IL Andrulis, JA Knight, G Glendon, AM Mulligan, SJ Chanock, J Lissowska, J Liu, A Cox, H Cramp, D Connley, S Balasubramanian, AM Dunning, M Shah, A Trentham-Dietz, P Newcomb, L Titus, K Egan, EK Cahoon, P Rajaraman, AJ Sigurdson, MM Doody, P Guénel, PDP Pharoah, MK Schmidt, P Hall, DF Easton, M Garcia-Closas, RL Milne, J Chang-Claude. Wrote the paper: S Nickels, T Truong, P Hall, DF Easton, M Garcia-Closas, RL Milne, J Chang-Claude.