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Research Article

Comparative Genomics Suggests an Independent Origin of Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Cardinium hertigii

  • Thomas Penz equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Thomas Penz, Stephan Schmitz-Esser

    Affiliation: Department of Microbial Ecology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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  • Stephan Schmitz-Esser equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Thomas Penz, Stephan Schmitz-Esser

    Affiliations: Department of Microbial Ecology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, Institute for Milk Hygiene, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria

    X
  • Suzanne E. Kelly,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America

    X
  • Bodil N. Cass,

    Affiliation: Graduate Interdisciplinary Program in Entomology and Insect Science, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America

    X
  • Anneliese Müller,

    Affiliation: Institute for Milk Hygiene, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria

    X
  • Tanja Woyke,

    Affiliation: U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

    X
  • Stephanie A. Malfatti,

    Affiliation: U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

    X
  • Martha S. Hunter mail,

    mhunter@ag.arizona.edu (MSH); horn@microbial-ecology.net (MH)

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America

    X
  • Matthias Horn mail

    mhunter@ag.arizona.edu (MSH); horn@microbial-ecology.net (MH)

    Affiliation: Department of Microbial Ecology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

    X
  • Published: October 25, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003012

About the Authors

Thomas Penz, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Matthias Horn
Department of Microbial Ecology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Anneliese Müller
Institute for Milk Hygiene, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Suzanne E. Kelly, Martha S. Hunter
Department of Entomology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America
Bodil N. Cass
Graduate Interdisciplinary Program in Entomology and Insect Science, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America
Tanja Woyke, Stephanie A. Malfatti
U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MSH SS-E MH. Performed the experiments: TP SS-E SEK BNC AM TW SAM. Analyzed the data: TP SS-E TW MSH MH. Wrote the paper: TP MSH MH.