Advertisement
Research Article

A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Five Loci Influencing Facial Morphology in Europeans

  • Fan Liu,

    Affiliation: Department of Forensic Molecular Biology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • Fedde van der Lijn,

    Affiliations: Department of Forensic Molecular Biology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • Claudia Schurmann,

    Affiliation: Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

    X
  • Gu Zhu,

    Affiliation: Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

    X
  • M. Mallar Chakravarty,

    Affiliations: Rotman Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

    X
  • Pirro G. Hysi,

    Affiliation: Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Andreas Wollstein,

    Affiliation: Department of Forensic Molecular Biology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • Oscar Lao,

    Affiliation: Department of Forensic Molecular Biology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • Marleen de Bruijne,

    Affiliations: Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • M. Arfan Ikram,

    Affiliations: Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • Aad van der Lugt,

    Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • Fernando Rivadeneira,

    Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • André G. Uitterlinden,

    Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • Albert Hofman,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • Wiro J. Niessen,

    Affiliations: Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Imaging Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

    X
  • Georg Homuth,

    Affiliation: Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

    X
  • Greig de Zubicaray,

    Affiliation: Centre for Advanced Imaging, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

    X
  • Katie L. McMahon,

    Affiliation: Centre for Advanced Imaging, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

    X
  • Paul M. Thompson,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Neuroimaging, School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

    X
  • Amro Daboul,

    Affiliation: Center of Oral Health, Department of Prosthodontics, Gerostomatology, and Dental Materials, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

    X
  • Ralf Puls,

    Affiliation: Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

    X
  • Katrin Hegenscheid,

    Affiliation: Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

    X
  • Liisa Bevan,

    Affiliation: Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Zdenka Pausova,

    Affiliation: The Hospital of Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

    X
  • Sarah E. Medland,

    Affiliation: Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

    X
  • Grant W. Montgomery,

    Affiliation: Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

    X
  • Margaret J. Wright,

    Affiliation: Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

    X
  • Carol Wicking,

    Affiliation: Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

    X
  • Stefan Boehringer,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

    X
  • Timothy D. Spector,

    Affiliation: Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Tomáš Paus,

    Affiliations: Rotman Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, Montréal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montréal, Canada

    X
  • Nicholas G. Martin,

    Affiliation: Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

    X
  • Reiner Biffar,

    Affiliation: Center of Oral Health, Department of Prosthodontics, Gerostomatology, and Dental Materials, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

    X
  • Manfred Kayser, for the International Visible Trait Genetics (VisiGen) Consortium mail

    m.kayser@erasmusmc.nl

    Affiliation: Department of Forensic Molecular Biology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • Published: September 13, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932

About the Authors

Fan Liu, Fedde van der Lijn, Andreas Wollstein, Oscar Lao, Manfred Kayser
Department of Forensic Molecular Biology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Fedde van der Lijn, Marleen de Bruijne, Wiro J. Niessen
Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Fedde van der Lijn, Marleen de Bruijne, M. Arfan Ikram, Aad van der Lugt, Wiro J. Niessen
Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Claudia Schurmann, Georg Homuth
Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
Gu Zhu, Sarah E. Medland, Grant W. Montgomery, Margaret J. Wright, Nicholas G. Martin
Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
M. Mallar Chakravarty, Tomáš Paus
Rotman Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
M. Mallar Chakravarty
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Pirro G. Hysi, Liisa Bevan, Timothy D. Spector
Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
M. Arfan Ikram, Fernando Rivadeneira, André G. Uitterlinden, Albert Hofman
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Fernando Rivadeneira, André G. Uitterlinden
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Wiro J. Niessen
Department of Imaging Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
Greig de Zubicaray, Katie L. McMahon
Centre for Advanced Imaging, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Paul M. Thompson
Laboratory of Neuroimaging, School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
Amro Daboul, Reiner Biffar
Center of Oral Health, Department of Prosthodontics, Gerostomatology, and Dental Materials, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
Ralf Puls, Katrin Hegenscheid
Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
Zdenka Pausova
The Hospital of Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Carol Wicking
Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Stefan Boehringer
Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Tomáš Paus
Montréal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montréal, Canada

Corresponding Author

Email: m.kayser@erasmusmc.nl

Competing Interests

TS and MK have consulted for Identitas Inc. and are on the SAB but without financial or other direct benefits. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: FL MK. Analyzed the data: FL FvdL CS GZ MMC AW OL SB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MK RB NGM TP TDS AH AGU MAI. Data preparation: FvdL PGH MdB AW MAI AvdL FR AGU AH WJN GH GdZ KLM PMT AD RP KH LB ZP SEM GWM MJW TDS TP NGM RB. Wrote the manuscript: FL MK. Additional contributions: CW FvdL AW NGM CS MMC OL MAI SB TDS TP RB. Approved the manuscript: FL FvdL CS GZ MMC PGH AW OL MdB MAI AvdL FR AGU AH WJN GH GdZ KLM PMT AD RP KH LB ZP SEM GWM MJW CW SB TDS TP NGM RB MK.