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Research Article

New Susceptibility Loci Associated with Kidney Disease in Type 1 Diabetes

  • Niina Sandholm equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Niina Sandholm, Rany M. Salem, Amy Jayne McKnight, Eoin P. Brennan

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland

    X
  • Rany M. Salem equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Niina Sandholm, Rany M. Salem, Amy Jayne McKnight, Eoin P. Brennan

    Affiliations: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Endocrine Research Unit, Department of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Amy Jayne McKnight equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Niina Sandholm, Rany M. Salem, Amy Jayne McKnight, Eoin P. Brennan

    Affiliation: Nephrology Research, Centre for Public Health, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

    X
  • Eoin P. Brennan equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Niina Sandholm, Rany M. Salem, Amy Jayne McKnight, Eoin P. Brennan

    Affiliations: Diabetes Research Centre, Conway Institute, School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland, Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

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  • Carol Forsblom,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Tamara Isakova,

    Affiliation: Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, United States of America

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  • Gareth J. McKay,

    Affiliation: Nephrology Research, Centre for Public Health, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

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  • Winfred W. Williams,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Denise M. Sadlier,

    Affiliations: Diabetes Research Centre, Conway Institute, School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland, Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

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  • Ville-Petteri Mäkinen,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Biocenter Oulu and Clinical Research Center, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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  • Elizabeth J. Swan,

    Affiliation: Nephrology Research, Centre for Public Health, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

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  • Cameron Palmer,

    Affiliations: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Endocrine Research Unit, Department of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Andrew P. Boright,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

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  • Emma Ahlqvist,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes, and Endocrinology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden

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  • Harshal A. Deshmukh,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom

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  • Benjamin J. Keller,

    Affiliation: Computer Science, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Huateng Huang,

    Affiliation: Division of Nephrology, Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Aila J. Ahola,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Emma Fagerholm,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Daniel Gordin,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Valma Harjutsalo,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, Diabetes Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • Bing He,

    Affiliation: Division of Matrix Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Outi Heikkilä,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Kustaa Hietala,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Janne Kytö,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Päivi Lahermo,

    Affiliation: Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Markku Lehto,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Raija Lithovius,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • Anne-May Österholm,

    Affiliation: Division of Matrix Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Maija Parkkonen,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Janne Pitkäniemi,

    Affiliation: Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • Milla Rosengård-Bärlund,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • Markku Saraheimo,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • Cinzia Sarti,

    Affiliation: Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • Jenny Söderlund,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • Aino Soro-Paavonen,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • Anna Syreeni,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • Lena M. Thorn,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • Heikki Tikkanen,

    Affiliation: Unit for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • Nina Tolonen,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • Karl Tryggvason,

    Affiliation: Division of Matrix Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

    X
  • Jaakko Tuomilehto,

    Affiliations: Diabetes Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland, South Ostrobothnia Central Hospital, Seinäjoki, Finland, Red RECAVA Grupo RD06/0014/0015, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain, Centre for Vascular Prevention, Danube-University Krems, Krems, Austria

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  • Johan Wadén,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • Geoffrey V. Gill,

    Affiliation: Diabetes Endocrine Unit, Clinical Sciences Centre, Aintree University Hospital, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Sarah Prior,

    Affiliation: Institute of Life Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom

    X
  • Candace Guiducci,

    Affiliation: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Daniel B. Mirel,

    Affiliation: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Andrew Taylor,

    Affiliations: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • S. Mohsen Hosseini,

    Affiliations: Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, Program in Genetics and Genome Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada

    X
  • DCCT/EDIC Research Group,

    Affiliations: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, Biostatics Division, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

    Membership of the DCCT/EDIC Research Group is provided in Table S14.

    X
  • Hans-Henrik Parving,

    Affiliations: Department of Medical Endocrinology, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark

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  • Peter Rossing,

    Affiliations: Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark

    X
  • Lise Tarnow,

    Affiliations: Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark

    X
  • Claes Ladenvall,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes, and Endocrinology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden

    X
  • François Alhenc-Gelas,

    Affiliation: INSERM U872, Paris-Descartes University, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France

    X
  • Pierre Lefebvre,

    Affiliation: CHU Sart Tilman, Liège, Belgium

    X
  • Vincent Rigalleau,

    Affiliation: CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France

    X
  • Ronan Roussel,

    Affiliations: AP-HP, Hôpital Bichat, Diabetology Endocrinology Nutrition, Paris, France, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR 738, Paris, France, INSERM, UMR872, Equipe 2, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France

    X
  • David-Alexandre Tregouet,

    Affiliation: INSERM UMR_S 937, ICAN Institute for Cardiometabolism and Nutrition, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France

    X
  • Anna Maestroni,

    Affiliation: Complications of Diabetes Unit, Division of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Sciences, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy

    X
  • Silvia Maestroni,

    Affiliation: Complications of Diabetes Unit, Division of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Sciences, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy

    X
  • Henrik Falhammar,

    Affiliations: Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

    X
  • Tianwei Gu,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

    X
  • Anna Möllsten,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

    X
  • Danut Cimponeriu,

    Affiliation: Genetics Department, Bucharest University, Bucharest, Romania

    X
  • Mihai Ioana,

    Affiliation: University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Craiova, Romania

    X
  • Maria Mota,

    Affiliation: University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Craiova, Romania

    X
  • Eugen Mota,

    Affiliation: University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Craiova, Romania

    X
  • Cristian Serafinceanu,

    Affiliation: “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania

    X
  • Monica Stavarachi,

    Affiliation: Genetics Department, Bucharest University, Bucharest, Romania

    X
  • Robert L. Hanson,

    Affiliation: Diabetes Epidemiology and Clinical Research Section, NIDDK, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America

    X
  • Robert G. Nelson,

    Affiliation: Diabetes Epidemiology and Clinical Research Section, NIDDK, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America

    X
  • Matthias Kretzler,

    Affiliation: Internal Medicine, Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • Helen M. Colhoun,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom

    X
  • Nicolae Mircea Panduru,

    Affiliation: “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania

    X
  • Harvest F. Gu,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

    X
  • Kerstin Brismar,

    Affiliations: Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

    X
  • Gianpaolo Zerbini,

    Affiliation: Complications of Diabetes Unit, Division of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Sciences, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy

    X
  • Samy Hadjadj,

    Affiliations: CHU Poitiers–Endocrinology, University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France, INSERM CIC0802, CHU Poitiers, Poitiers, France

    X
  • Michel Marre,

    Affiliations: AP-HP, Hôpital Bichat, Diabetology Endocrinology Nutrition, Paris, France, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR 738, Paris, France, INSERM, U695 (Genetic Determinants of Type 2 Diabetes and Its Vascular Complications), Paris, France

    X
  • Leif Groop,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes, and Endocrinology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden

    X
  • Maria Lajer,

    Affiliation: Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark

    X
  • Shelley B. Bull,

    Affiliations: Prosserman Centre for Health Research, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Toronto, Canada, Division of Biostatistics, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

    X
  • Daryl Waggott,

    Affiliation: Prosserman Centre for Health Research, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Toronto, Canada

    X
  • Andrew D. Paterson,

    Affiliations: Program in Genetics and Genome Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, Division of Biostatistics, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

    X
  • David A. Savage,

    Affiliation: Nephrology Research, Centre for Public Health, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom

    X
  • Stephen C. Bain,

    Affiliation: Institute of Life Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom

    X
  • Finian Martin,

    Affiliations: Diabetes Research Centre, Conway Institute, School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland, Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

    X
  • Joel N. Hirschhorn mail,

    joelh@broadinstitute.org (JN Hirschhorn); catherine.godson@ucd.ie (C Godson); jcflorez@partners.org (JC Florez); per-henrik.groop@helsinki.fi (P-H Groop); a.p.maxwell@qub.ac.uk (AP Maxwell)

    Affiliations: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Endocrine Research Unit, Department of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Catherine Godson mail,

    joelh@broadinstitute.org (JN Hirschhorn); catherine.godson@ucd.ie (C Godson); jcflorez@partners.org (JC Florez); per-henrik.groop@helsinki.fi (P-H Groop); a.p.maxwell@qub.ac.uk (AP Maxwell)

    Affiliations: Diabetes Research Centre, Conway Institute, School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland, Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

    X
  • Jose C. Florez mail,

    joelh@broadinstitute.org (JN Hirschhorn); catherine.godson@ucd.ie (C Godson); jcflorez@partners.org (JC Florez); per-henrik.groop@helsinki.fi (P-H Groop); a.p.maxwell@qub.ac.uk (AP Maxwell)

    Affiliations: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Per-Henrik Groop mail,

    joelh@broadinstitute.org (JN Hirschhorn); catherine.godson@ucd.ie (C Godson); jcflorez@partners.org (JC Florez); per-henrik.groop@helsinki.fi (P-H Groop); a.p.maxwell@qub.ac.uk (AP Maxwell)

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia

    X
  • Alexander P. Maxwell mail

    joelh@broadinstitute.org (JN Hirschhorn); catherine.godson@ucd.ie (C Godson); jcflorez@partners.org (JC Florez); per-henrik.groop@helsinki.fi (P-H Groop); a.p.maxwell@qub.ac.uk (AP Maxwell)

    Affiliations: Nephrology Research, Centre for Public Health, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom, Regional Nephrology Unit, Belfast City Hospital, Belfast, United Kingdom

    X
  • Published: September 20, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002921

About the Authors

Niina Sandholm, Carol Forsblom, Ville-Petteri Mäkinen, Aila J. Ahola, Emma Fagerholm, Daniel Gordin, Valma Harjutsalo, Outi Heikkilä, Kustaa Hietala, Janne Kytö, Markku Lehto, Raija Lithovius, Maija Parkkonen, Milla Rosengård-Bärlund, Markku Saraheimo, Jenny Söderlund, Aino Soro-Paavonen, Anna Syreeni, Lena M. Thorn, Nina Tolonen, Johan Wadén, Per-Henrik Groop
Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Niina Sandholm, Carol Forsblom, Ville-Petteri Mäkinen, Aila J. Ahola, Emma Fagerholm, Daniel Gordin, Valma Harjutsalo, Outi Heikkilä, Markku Lehto, Raija Lithovius, Maija Parkkonen, Milla Rosengård-Bärlund, Markku Saraheimo, Jenny Söderlund, Aino Soro-Paavonen, Anna Syreeni, Lena M. Thorn, Nina Tolonen, Johan Wadén, Per-Henrik Groop
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Niina Sandholm
Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
Rany M. Salem, Cameron Palmer, Candace Guiducci, Daniel B. Mirel, Andrew Taylor, Joel N. Hirschhorn, Jose C. Florez
Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
Rany M. Salem, Cameron Palmer, Joel N. Hirschhorn
Endocrine Research Unit, Department of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Rany M. Salem, Winfred W. Williams, Joel N. Hirschhorn, Jose C. Florez
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Amy Jayne McKnight, Gareth J. McKay, Elizabeth J. Swan, David A. Savage, Alexander P. Maxwell
Nephrology Research, Centre for Public Health, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom
Eoin P. Brennan, Denise M. Sadlier, Finian Martin, Catherine Godson
Diabetes Research Centre, Conway Institute, School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Eoin P. Brennan, Denise M. Sadlier, Finian Martin, Catherine Godson
Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Tamara Isakova
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, United States of America
Winfred W. Williams, Andrew Taylor, Jose C. Florez
Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Ville-Petteri Mäkinen
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Biocenter Oulu and Clinical Research Center, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Andrew P. Boright
Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Emma Ahlqvist, Claes Ladenvall, Leif Groop
Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes, and Endocrinology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
Harshal A. Deshmukh, Helen M. Colhoun
Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
Benjamin J. Keller
Computer Science, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan, United States of America
Huateng Huang
Division of Nephrology, Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Valma Harjutsalo, Jaakko Tuomilehto
Diabetes Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
Bing He, Anne-May Österholm, Karl Tryggvason
Division of Matrix Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Kustaa Hietala, Janne Kytö
Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Päivi Lahermo
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, Helsinki, Finland
Janne Pitkäniemi, Cinzia Sarti
Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Heikki Tikkanen
Unit for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland
Jaakko Tuomilehto
South Ostrobothnia Central Hospital, Seinäjoki, Finland
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Red RECAVA Grupo RD06/0014/0015, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Centre for Vascular Prevention, Danube-University Krems, Krems, Austria
Geoffrey V. Gill
Diabetes Endocrine Unit, Clinical Sciences Centre, Aintree University Hospital, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Sarah Prior, Stephen C. Bain
Institute of Life Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom
S. Mohsen Hosseini
Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
S. Mohsen Hosseini, Andrew D. Paterson
Program in Genetics and Genome Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
DCCT/EDIC Research Group
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
DCCT/EDIC Research Group
Biostatics Division, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America
Hans-Henrik Parving
Department of Medical Endocrinology, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Hans-Henrik Parving, Peter Rossing, Lise Tarnow
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark
Peter Rossing, Lise Tarnow, Maria Lajer
Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark
François Alhenc-Gelas
INSERM U872, Paris-Descartes University, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France
Pierre Lefebvre
CHU Sart Tilman, Liège, Belgium
Vincent Rigalleau
CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France
Ronan Roussel, Michel Marre
AP-HP, Hôpital Bichat, Diabetology Endocrinology Nutrition, Paris, France
Ronan Roussel, Michel Marre
Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR 738, Paris, France
Ronan Roussel
INSERM, UMR872, Equipe 2, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France
David-Alexandre Tregouet
INSERM UMR_S 937, ICAN Institute for Cardiometabolism and Nutrition, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France
Anna Maestroni, Silvia Maestroni, Gianpaolo Zerbini
Complications of Diabetes Unit, Division of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Sciences, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy
Henrik Falhammar, Tianwei Gu, Harvest F. Gu, Kerstin Brismar
Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Henrik Falhammar, Kerstin Brismar
Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Anna Möllsten
Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Danut Cimponeriu, Monica Stavarachi
Genetics Department, Bucharest University, Bucharest, Romania
Mihai Ioana, Maria Mota, Eugen Mota
University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Craiova, Romania
Cristian Serafinceanu, Nicolae Mircea Panduru
“Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
Robert L. Hanson, Robert G. Nelson
Diabetes Epidemiology and Clinical Research Section, NIDDK, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America
Matthias Kretzler
Internal Medicine, Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Samy Hadjadj
CHU Poitiers–Endocrinology, University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France
Samy Hadjadj
INSERM CIC0802, CHU Poitiers, Poitiers, France
Michel Marre
INSERM, U695 (Genetic Determinants of Type 2 Diabetes and Its Vascular Complications), Paris, France
Shelley B. Bull, Daryl Waggott
Prosserman Centre for Health Research, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Toronto, Canada
Shelley B. Bull, Andrew D. Paterson
Division of Biostatistics, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Per-Henrik Groop
Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia
Alexander P. Maxwell
Regional Nephrology Unit, Belfast City Hospital, Belfast, United Kingdom

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

JC Florez has received consulting honoraria from Novartis, Lilly, and Pfizer. M Kretzler received grant support from Hoffman La Roche and Fibrotech. P-H Groop has received lecture honorariums from Abbot, Boehringer Ingelheim, Cebix, Eli Lilly, Genzyme, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, MSD, and research grants from Eli Lilly and Roche. P-H Groop is also an advisory board member of Boehringer Ingelheim and Novartis.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AP Maxwell, JC Florez, JN Hirschhorn, P-H Groop, C Godson, F Martin, G Zerbini, M Marre, S Hadjadj, HF Gu, K Brismar, L Groop, NM Panduru, SC Bain, M Lajer, HM Colhoun, AD Paterson, D Waggott, SB Bull, M Kretzler. Performed the experiments: DA Savage, AJ McKnight, EJ Swan, C Guiducci, DB Mirel, A Taylor, C Godson, N Sandholm, M Parkkonen, J Söderlund, A Syreeni, P Lahermo, K Tryggvason, B He, A-M Österholm, AD Paterson, S Maestroni, S Hadjadj, M Marre, V Rigalleau, R Roussel, F Alhenc-Gelas, P Lefebvre, HF Gu, A Möllsten, T Gu, E Ahlqvist, M Ioana, M Stavarachi, D Cimponeriu, SM Hosseini, M Kretzler, RL Hanson. Analyzed the data: AJ McKnight, GJ McKay, EJ Swan, JC Florez, JN Hirschhorn, C Palmer, RM Salem, N Sandholm, C Forsblom, V-P Mäkinen, EP Brennan, F Martin, S Hadjadj, M Marre, V Rigalleau, R Roussel, F Alhenc-Gelas, P Lefebvre, D-A Tregouet, C Ladenvall, HA Deshmukh, AD Paterson, AP Boright, D Waggott, BJ Keller, H Huang, E Ahlqvist. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: S Prior, SB Bull, GV Gill, AJ McKnight, AP Maxwell, T Isakova, WW Williams, N Sandholm, C Forsblom, V Harjutsalo, AJ Ahola, E Fagerholm, D Gordin, O Heikkilä, K Hietala, J Kytö, M Lehto, V-P Mäkinen, M Rosengård-Bärlund, LM Thorn, N Tolonen, M Saraheimo, A Soro-Paavonen, J Wadén, H Tikkanen, J Tuomilehto, P Lahermo, P-H Groop, J Pitkäniemi, C Sarti, K Tryggvason, B He, A-M Österholm, AD Paterson, DM Sadlier, G Zerbini, A Maestroni, HF Gu, A Möllsten, H Falhammar, E Ahlqvist, M Mota, EM, SC Bain, GV Gill, S Prior, M Lehto, L Tarnow, P Rossing, H-H Parving, HM Colhoun, HA Deshmukh, M Kretzler, RG Nelson, RL Hanson, R Lithovius, K Brismar. Wrote the paper: N Sandholm, RM Salem, AJ McKnight, EP Brennan, C Forsblom, T Isakova, GJ McKay, WW Williams, DM Sadlier, F Martin, JN Hirschhorn, C Godson, JC Florez, P-H Groop, AP Maxwell.