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Research Article

Geographic Differences in Genetic Susceptibility to IgA Nephropathy: GWAS Replication Study and Geospatial Risk Analysis

  • Krzysztof Kiryluk,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Yifu Li,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Simone Sanna-Cherchi,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Medicine, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Mersedeh Rohanizadegan,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Hitoshi Suzuki,

    Affiliation: Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

    X
  • Frank Eitner,

    Affiliation: Department of Nephrology, RWTH University of Aachen, Aachen, Germany

    X
  • Holly J. Snyder,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Murim Choi,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

    X
  • Ping Hou,

    Affiliation: Renal Division, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Beijing, China

    X
  • Francesco Scolari,

    Affiliation: University of Brescia and Second Division of Nephrology, Montichiari Hospital, Montichiari, Italy

    X
  • Claudia Izzi,

    Affiliation: University of Brescia and Second Division of Nephrology, Montichiari Hospital, Montichiari, Italy

    X
  • Maddalena Gigante,

    Affiliation: Section of Nephrology, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Bari, Italy

    X
  • Loreto Gesualdo,

    Affiliation: Section of Nephrology, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Bari, Italy

    X
  • Silvana Savoldi,

    Affiliation: Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, Ciriè Hospital, Torino, Italy

    X
  • Antonio Amoroso,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Biology, and Biochemistry, University of Torino, Torino, Italy

    X
  • Daniele Cusi,

    Affiliation: Renal Division, DMCO, San Paolo Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

    X
  • Pasquale Zamboli,

    Affiliation: Department of Nephrology, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy

    X
  • Bruce A. Julian,

    Affiliation: Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

    X
  • Jan Novak,

    Affiliation: Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

    X
  • Robert J. Wyatt,

    Affiliations: Children's Foundation Research Center, Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America

    X
  • Krzysztof Mucha,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, Transplantology, and Internal Medicine, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland

    X
  • Markus Perola,

    Affiliations: Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland, Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, The Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

    X
  • Kati Kristiansson,

    Affiliation: Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • Alexander Viktorin,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

    X
  • Patrik K. Magnusson,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

    X
  • Gudmar Thorleifsson,

    Affiliations: deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland

    X
  • Unnur Thorsteinsdottir,

    Affiliations: deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland

    X
  • Kari Stefansson,

    Affiliations: deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland

    X
  • Anne Boland,

    Affiliation: Centre National de Génotypage, CEA, Institut de Génomique, Evry, France

    X
  • Marie Metzger,

    Affiliation: INSERM, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Villejuif, France

    X
  • Lise Thibaudin,

    Affiliation: Nephrology, Dialysis, and Renal Transplantation Department, University North Hospital, Saint Etienne, France

    X
  • Christoph Wanner,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University Hospital, Würzburg, Germany

    X
  • Kitty J. Jager,

    Affiliation: ERA–EDTA Registry, Department of Medical Informatics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • Shin Goto,

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Nephrology and Rheumatology, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan

    X
  • Dita Maixnerova,

    Affiliation: Department of Nephrology, 1st Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic

    X
  • Hussein H. Karnib,

    Affiliation: Clinical Research Center and Division of Nephrology, Al Rassoul Al-Aazam Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon

    X
  • Judit Nagy,

    Affiliation: Nephrology Center and 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary

    X
  • Ulf Panzer,

    Affiliation: III Medizinische Klinik, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

    X
  • Jingyuan Xie,

    Affiliation: Department of Nephrology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

    X
  • Nan Chen,

    Affiliation: Department of Nephrology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

    X
  • Vladimir Tesar,

    Affiliation: Department of Nephrology, 1st Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic

    X
  • Ichiei Narita,

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Nephrology and Rheumatology, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan

    X
  • Francois Berthoux,

    Affiliation: Nephrology, Dialysis, and Renal Transplantation Department, University North Hospital, Saint Etienne, France

    X
  • Jürgen Floege,

    Affiliation: Department of Nephrology, RWTH University of Aachen, Aachen, Germany

    X
  • Benedicte Stengel,

    Affiliation: INSERM, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Villejuif, France

    X
  • Hong Zhang,

    Affiliation: Renal Division, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Beijing, China

    X
  • Richard P. Lifton,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

    X
  • Ali G. Gharavi mail

    ag2239@columbia.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Published: June 21, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002765

About the Authors

Krzysztof Kiryluk, Yifu Li, Simone Sanna-Cherchi, Mersedeh Rohanizadegan, Holly J. Snyder, Ali G. Gharavi
Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America
Simone Sanna-Cherchi
Department of Medicine, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, New York, United States of America
Hitoshi Suzuki
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
Frank Eitner, Jürgen Floege
Department of Nephrology, RWTH University of Aachen, Aachen, Germany
Murim Choi, Richard P. Lifton
Department of Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
Ping Hou, Hong Zhang
Renal Division, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Beijing, China
Francesco Scolari, Claudia Izzi
University of Brescia and Second Division of Nephrology, Montichiari Hospital, Montichiari, Italy
Maddalena Gigante, Loreto Gesualdo
Section of Nephrology, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
Silvana Savoldi
Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, Ciriè Hospital, Torino, Italy
Antonio Amoroso
Department of Genetics, Biology, and Biochemistry, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
Daniele Cusi
Renal Division, DMCO, San Paolo Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Pasquale Zamboli
Department of Nephrology, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
Bruce A. Julian, Jan Novak
Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America
Robert J. Wyatt
Children's Foundation Research Center, Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America
Robert J. Wyatt
Division of Pediatric Nephrology, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America
Krzysztof Mucha
Department of Immunology, Transplantology, and Internal Medicine, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland
Markus Perola, Kati Kristiansson
Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
Markus Perola
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Markus Perola
The Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
Alexander Viktorin, Patrik K. Magnusson
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Gudmar Thorleifsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson
deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland
Gudmar Thorleifsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson
Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland
Anne Boland
Centre National de Génotypage, CEA, Institut de Génomique, Evry, France
Marie Metzger, Benedicte Stengel
INSERM, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Villejuif, France
Lise Thibaudin, Francois Berthoux
Nephrology, Dialysis, and Renal Transplantation Department, University North Hospital, Saint Etienne, France
Christoph Wanner
Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University Hospital, Würzburg, Germany
Kitty J. Jager
ERA–EDTA Registry, Department of Medical Informatics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Shin Goto, Ichiei Narita
Division of Clinical Nephrology and Rheumatology, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan
Dita Maixnerova, Vladimir Tesar
Department of Nephrology, 1st Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Hussein H. Karnib
Clinical Research Center and Division of Nephrology, Al Rassoul Al-Aazam Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
Judit Nagy
Nephrology Center and 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary
Ulf Panzer
III Medizinische Klinik, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
Jingyuan Xie, Nan Chen
Department of Nephrology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

Corresponding Author

Email: ag2239@columbia.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: K Kiryluk, AG Gharavi. Performed the experiments: K Kiryluk, Y Li, M Rohanizadegan, AG Gharavi. Analyzed the data: K Kiryluk, AG Gharavi. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: M Choi, M Perola, K Kristiansson, A Viktorin, PK Magnusson, G Thorleifsson, U Thorsteinsdottir, K Stefansson, A Boland, C Wanner, KJ Jager, RP Lifton. Wrote the paper: K Kiryluk, AG Gharavi. DNA preparation: Y Li, M Rohanizadegan. Data management: Y Li, K Kiryluk. Subject recruitment and clinical characterization: S Sanna-Cherchi, H Suzuki, F Eitner, HJ Snyder, P Hou, F Scolari, C Izzi, M Gigante, L Gesualdo, S Savoldi, A Amoroso, D Cusi, P Zamboli, BA Julian, J Novak, RJ Wyatt, K Mucha, M Metzger, L Thibaudin, S Goto, D Maixnerova, HH Karnib, J Nagy, U Panzer, J Xie, N Chen, V Tesar, I Narita, F Berthoux, J Floege, B Stengel, H Zhang.