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Research Article

Age-Dependent Brain Gene Expression and Copy Number Anomalies in Autism Suggest Distinct Pathological Processes at Young Versus Mature Ages

  • Maggie L. Chow equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Maggie L. Chow, Tiziano Pramparo

    Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, NIH–UCSD Autism Center of Excellence, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Tiziano Pramparo equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Maggie L. Chow, Tiziano Pramparo

    Affiliations: Department of Neuroscience, NIH–UCSD Autism Center of Excellence, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics and Institute of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Mary E. Winn,

    Affiliations: Scripps Genomic Medicine and The Scripps Translational Sciences Institute (STSI), La Jolla, California, United States of America, Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Cynthia Carter Barnes,

    Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, NIH–UCSD Autism Center of Excellence, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    X
  • Hai-Ri Li,

    Affiliation: Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Lauren Weiss,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Jian-Bing Fan,

    Affiliation: Illumina, San Diego, California, United States of America

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  • Sarah Murray,

    Affiliation: Scripps Genomic Medicine and The Scripps Translational Sciences Institute (STSI), La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Craig April,

    Affiliation: Illumina, San Diego, California, United States of America

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  • Haim Belinson,

    Affiliation: Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics and Institute of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Xiang-Dong Fu ,

    Affiliation: Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    These authors were joint senior authors on this work.

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  • Anthony Wynshaw-Boris ,

    Affiliation: Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics and Institute of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    These authors were joint senior authors on this work.

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  • Nicholas J. Schork mail,

    nschork@scripps.edu (NJS); ecourchesne@ucsd.edu (EC)

    Affiliation: Scripps Genomic Medicine and The Scripps Translational Sciences Institute (STSI), La Jolla, California, United States of America

    These authors were joint senior authors on this work.

    X
  • Eric Courchesne mail

    nschork@scripps.edu (NJS); ecourchesne@ucsd.edu (EC)

    Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, NIH–UCSD Autism Center of Excellence, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    These authors were joint senior authors on this work.

    X
  • Published: March 22, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002592

About the Authors

Maggie L. Chow, Tiziano Pramparo, Cynthia Carter Barnes, Eric Courchesne
Department of Neuroscience, NIH–UCSD Autism Center of Excellence, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Tiziano Pramparo, Haim Belinson, Anthony Wynshaw-Boris
Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics and Institute of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Mary E. Winn, Sarah Murray, Nicholas J. Schork
Scripps Genomic Medicine and The Scripps Translational Sciences Institute (STSI), La Jolla, California, United States of America
Mary E. Winn
Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Hai-Ri Li, Xiang-Dong Fu
Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Lauren Weiss
Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Jian-Bing Fan, Craig April
Illumina, San Diego, California, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

J-BF and CA declare stock and employment interest in Illumina, Inc.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: J-BF X-DF AW-B NJS EC. Performed the experiments: MLC TP H-RL CA. Analyzed the data: MLC TP MEW LW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: NJS AW-B EC X-DF LW. Wrote the paper: MLC TP AW-B NJS EC. Performed detailed review of the clinical data from the post-mortem individuals that are depicted in Table S1: CCB. Oversaw the processing of the genotyping assays: SM. Performed the second set of Bioanalyzer experiments to assess RNA quality: HB.