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Research Article

APOBEC3G-Induced Hypermutation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Is Typically a Discrete “All or Nothing” Phenomenon

  • Andrew E. Armitage,

    Affiliation: MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Koen Deforche,

    Affiliation: Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

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  • Chih-hao Chang,

    Affiliation: MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Edmund Wee,

    Affiliation: MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Beatrice Kramer,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • John J. Welch,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Jan Gerstoft,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, The National University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Lars Fugger,

    Affiliations: MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom, Department of Clinical Neurology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Andrew McMichael,

    Affiliation: MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Andrew Rambaut mail,

    astrid.iversen@imm.ox.ac.uk (AKNI); a.rambaut@ed.ac.uk (AR)

    Affiliation: Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Astrid K. N. Iversen mail

    astrid.iversen@imm.ox.ac.uk (AKNI); a.rambaut@ed.ac.uk (AR)

    Affiliations: MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom, The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Published: March 22, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002550

About the Authors

Andrew E. Armitage, Chih-hao Chang, Edmund Wee, Lars Fugger, Andrew McMichael, Astrid K. N. Iversen
MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
Koen Deforche
Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Beatrice Kramer
Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
John J. Welch
Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Jan Gerstoft
Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, The National University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
Lars Fugger
Department of Clinical Neurology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
Andrew Rambaut
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Astrid K. N. Iversen
The Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AKNI AEA AR. Performed the experiments: AEA C-hC EW BK AKNI. Analyzed the data: AKNI AEA KD JJW AR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KD AR AKNI JG LF AJM. Wrote the paper: AKNI. Provided intellectual input during the writing of the manuscript: AEA KD JJW AR. Commented on the final version of the manuscript: AEA KD C-hC EW BK JJW JG LF AM AR AKNI.