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Research Article

Ultrafast Evolution and Loss of CRISPRs Following a Host Shift in a Novel Wildlife Pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum

  • Nigel F. Delaney,

    Affiliation: Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Susan Balenger,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, United States of America

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  • Camille Bonneaud,

    Affiliation: Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

    Current address: Station d'Ecologie Expérimentale du CNRS a Moulis USR 2936 Moulis, Saint-Girons, France

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  • Christopher J. Marx,

    Affiliation: Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Geoffrey E. Hill,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, United States of America

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  • Naola Ferguson-Noel,

    Affiliation: Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Peter Tsai,

    Affiliation: Bioinformatics Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

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  • Allen Rodrigo,

    Affiliation: Bioinformatics Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

    Current address: National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Scott V. Edwards mail

    sedwards@fas.harvard.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Published: February 09, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002511

About the Authors

Nigel F. Delaney, Camille Bonneaud, Christopher J. Marx, Scott V. Edwards
Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
Susan Balenger, Geoffrey E. Hill
Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, United States of America
Naola Ferguson-Noel
Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America
Peter Tsai, Allen Rodrigo
Bioinformatics Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

Corresponding Author

Email: sedwards@fas.harvard.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SVE GEH NFD. Performed the experiments: NFD CB SB. Analyzed the data: NFD SVE PT AR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: NFD CJM NF-N. Wrote the paper: NFD SVE GEH AR CJM.