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Research Article

Consequences of Eukaryotic Enhancer Architecture for Gene Expression Dynamics, Development, and Fitness

  • Michael Z. Ludwig equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Michael Z. Ludwig, Manu

    martinkreitman@gmail.com (MK); mludwig@uchicago.edu (MZL)

    Affiliations: Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America, Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Manu equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Michael Z. Ludwig, Manu

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

    X
  • Ralf Kittler,

    Affiliations: Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America, Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

    Current address: Eugene McDermott Center For Growth and Development, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

    X
  • Kevin P. White,

    Affiliations: Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America, Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America, Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

    X
  • Martin Kreitman mail

    martinkreitman@gmail.com (MK); mludwig@uchicago.edu (MZL)

    Affiliations: Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America, Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Published: November 10, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002364

About the Authors

Michael Z. Ludwig, Manu, Kevin P. White, Martin Kreitman
Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
Michael Z. Ludwig, Ralf Kittler, Kevin P. White, Martin Kreitman
Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
Ralf Kittler, Kevin P. White
Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MZL MK M. Performed the experiments: MZL M. Analyzed the data: MZL M MK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RK KPW MZL. Wrote the paper: MZL M MK.