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Research Article

Identification, Replication, and Fine-Mapping of Loci Associated with Adult Height in Individuals of African Ancestry

  • Amidou N'Diaye equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Amidou N'Diaye, Gary K. Chen, Cameron D. Palmer

    Affiliation: Montreal Heart Institute, Montréal, Canada

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  • Gary K. Chen equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Amidou N'Diaye, Gary K. Chen, Cameron D. Palmer

    Affiliation: Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Cameron D. Palmer equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Amidou N'Diaye, Gary K. Chen, Cameron D. Palmer

    Affiliations: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Divisions of Genetics and Endocrinology and Program in Genomics, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Bing Ge,

    Affiliation: Department of Human Genetics, McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal, Canada

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  • Bamidele Tayo,

    Affiliation: Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Rasika A. Mathias,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins GeneSTAR Research Program, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jingzhong Ding,

    Affiliation: Sticht Center on Aging, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Michael A. Nalls,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Adebowale Adeyemo,

    Affiliation: NIH Intramural Center for Research on Genomics and Global Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Véronique Adoue,

    Affiliation: Department of Human Genetics, McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal, Canada

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  • Christine B. Ambrosone,

    Affiliation: Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, United States of America

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  • Larry Atwood,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Elisa V. Bandera,

    Affiliation: The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States of America

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  • Lewis C. Becker,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins GeneSTAR Research Program, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Sonja I. Berndt,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Leslie Bernstein,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Etiology, Department of Population Science, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, California, United States of America

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  • William J. Blot,

    Affiliations: International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America, Vanderbilt–Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America

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  • Eric Boerwinkle,

    Affiliation: Human Genetics Center and Institute of Molecular Medicine and Division of Epidemiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America

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  • Angela Britton,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Graham Casey,

    Affiliation: Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Stephen J. Chanock,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Ellen Demerath,

    Affiliation: Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Sandra L. Deming,

    Affiliations: Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America, Vanderbilt–Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America

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  • W. Ryan Diver,

    Affiliation: Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Caroline Fox,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, United States of America

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  • Tamara B. Harris,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Dena G. Hernandez,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jennifer J. Hu,

    Affiliation: Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America

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  • Sue A. Ingles,

    Affiliation: Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Esther M. John,

    Affiliations: Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, California, United States of America, School of Medicine and Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Craig Johnson,

    Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Brendan Keating,

    Affiliation: Center for Applied Genomics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Rick A. Kittles,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Laurence N. Kolonel,

    Affiliation: Epidemiology Program, Cancer Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

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  • Stephen B. Kritchevsky,

    Affiliation: Sticht Center on Aging, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Loic Le Marchand,

    Affiliation: Epidemiology Program, Cancer Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

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  • Kurt Lohman,

    Affiliation: Sticht Center on Aging, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Jiankang Liu,

    Affiliation: University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, United States of America

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  • Robert C. Millikan,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Adam Murphy,

    Affiliation: Department of Urology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Solomon Musani,

    Affiliation: Jackson Heart Study, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, United States of America

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  • Christine Neslund-Dudas,

    Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics and Research Epidemiology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Kari E. North,

    Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Sarah Nyante,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Adesola Ogunniyi,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

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  • Elaine A. Ostrander,

    Affiliation: Cancer Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • George Papanicolaou,

    Affiliation: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Sanjay Patel,

    Affiliation: Division of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Curtis A. Pettaway,

    Affiliation: Department of Urology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America

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  • Michael F. Press,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Susan Redline,

    Affiliation: Division of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Jorge L. Rodriguez-Gil,

    Affiliation: Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America

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  • Charles Rotimi,

    Affiliation: NIH Intramural Center for Research on Genomics and Global Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Benjamin A. Rybicki,

    Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics and Research Epidemiology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Babatunde Salako,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

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  • Pamela J. Schreiner,

    Affiliation: Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Lisa B. Signorello,

    Affiliations: International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America, Vanderbilt–Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America

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  • Andrew B. Singleton,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Janet L. Stanford,

    Affiliation: Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Alex H. Stram,

    Affiliation: Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Daniel O. Stram,

    Affiliation: Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Sara S. Strom,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America

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  • Bhoom Suktitipat,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins GeneSTAR Research Program, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Michael J. Thun,

    Affiliation: Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • John S. Witte,

    Affiliation: Institute for Human Genetics, Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Lisa R. Yanek,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins GeneSTAR Research Program, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Regina G. Ziegler,

    Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Wei Zheng,

    Affiliations: Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America, Vanderbilt–Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America

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  • Xiaofeng Zhu,

    Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America

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  • Joseph M. Zmuda,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Alan B. Zonderman,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Personality and Cognition, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Michele K. Evans,

    Affiliation: Health Disparities Research Section, Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Yongmei Liu,

    Affiliation: Sticht Center on Aging, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Diane M. Becker,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins GeneSTAR Research Program, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Richard S. Cooper,

    Affiliation: Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Tomi Pastinen,

    Affiliation: Department of Human Genetics, McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal, Canada

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  • Brian E. Henderson,

    Affiliation: Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Joel N. Hirschhorn mail,

    joelh@broadinstitute.org (JN Hirschhorn); guillaume.lettre@umontreal.ca (G Lettre); haiman@usc.edu (CA Haiman)

    Affiliations: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Divisions of Genetics and Endocrinology and Program in Genomics, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Guillaume Lettre mail,

    joelh@broadinstitute.org (JN Hirschhorn); guillaume.lettre@umontreal.ca (G Lettre); haiman@usc.edu (CA Haiman)

    Affiliations: Montreal Heart Institute, Montréal, Canada, Département de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada

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  • Christopher A. Haiman mail

    joelh@broadinstitute.org (JN Hirschhorn); guillaume.lettre@umontreal.ca (G Lettre); haiman@usc.edu (CA Haiman)

    Affiliation: Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Published: October 06, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002298

About the Authors

Amidou N'Diaye, Guillaume Lettre
Montreal Heart Institute, Montréal, Canada
Gary K. Chen, Graham Casey, Sue A. Ingles, Alex H. Stram, Daniel O. Stram, Brian E. Henderson, Christopher A. Haiman
Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
Cameron D. Palmer, Joel N. Hirschhorn
Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
Cameron D. Palmer, Joel N. Hirschhorn
Divisions of Genetics and Endocrinology and Program in Genomics, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Bing Ge, Véronique Adoue, Tomi Pastinen
Department of Human Genetics, McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal, Canada
Bamidele Tayo, Richard S. Cooper
Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois, United States of America
Rasika A. Mathias, Lewis C. Becker, Bhoom Suktitipat, Lisa R. Yanek, Diane M. Becker
Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins GeneSTAR Research Program, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Jingzhong Ding, Stephen B. Kritchevsky, Kurt Lohman, Yongmei Liu
Sticht Center on Aging, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America
Michael A. Nalls, Angela Britton, Dena G. Hernandez, Andrew B. Singleton
Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Adebowale Adeyemo, Charles Rotimi
NIH Intramural Center for Research on Genomics and Global Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Christine B. Ambrosone
Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, United States of America
Larry Atwood
Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Elisa V. Bandera
The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States of America
Sonja I. Berndt, Stephen J. Chanock, Regina G. Ziegler
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Leslie Bernstein
Division of Cancer Etiology, Department of Population Science, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, California, United States of America
William J. Blot, Lisa B. Signorello
International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
William J. Blot, Sandra L. Deming, Lisa B. Signorello, Wei Zheng
Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America
William J. Blot, Sandra L. Deming, Lisa B. Signorello, Wei Zheng
Vanderbilt–Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America
Eric Boerwinkle
Human Genetics Center and Institute of Molecular Medicine and Division of Epidemiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America
Ellen Demerath
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
W. Ryan Diver, Michael J. Thun
Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
Caroline Fox
Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, United States of America
Tamara B. Harris
Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Jennifer J. Hu, Jorge L. Rodriguez-Gil
Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America
Esther M. John
Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, California, United States of America
Esther M. John
School of Medicine and Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
Craig Johnson
Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Brendan Keating
Center for Applied Genomics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Rick A. Kittles
Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
Laurence N. Kolonel, Loic Le Marchand
Epidemiology Program, Cancer Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America
Jiankang Liu
University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, United States of America
Robert C. Millikan, Sarah Nyante
Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
Adam Murphy
Department of Urology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
Solomon Musani
Jackson Heart Study, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, United States of America
Christine Neslund-Dudas, Benjamin A. Rybicki
Department of Biostatistics and Research Epidemiology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America
Kari E. North
Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
Kari E. North
Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
Adesola Ogunniyi, Babatunde Salako
Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Elaine A. Ostrander
Cancer Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
George Papanicolaou
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Sanjay Patel, Susan Redline
Division of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Curtis A. Pettaway
Department of Urology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America
Michael F. Press
Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
Pamela J. Schreiner
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
Janet L. Stanford
Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Sara S. Strom
Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America
Bhoom Suktitipat
The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
John S. Witte
Institute for Human Genetics, Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Xiaofeng Zhu
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America
Joseph M. Zmuda
Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Alan B. Zonderman
Laboratory of Personality and Cognition, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Michele K. Evans
Health Disparities Research Section, Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Joel N. Hirschhorn
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Guillaume Lettre
Département de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JN Hirschhorn, G Lettre, CA Haiman. Performed the experiments: A N'Diaye, GK Chen, CD Palmer, B Ge, V Adoue, AB Singleton, T Pastinen, JN Hirschhorn, G Lettre, CA Haiman. Analyzed the data: A N'Diaye, GK Chen, CD Palmer, B Ge, V Adoue, AB Singleton, T Pastinen, JN Hirschhorn, G Lettre, CA Haiman. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: A N'Diaye, GK Chen, CD Palmer, B Ge, B Tayo, CB Ambrosone, RA Mathias, J Ding, MA Nalls, A Adeyemo, V Adoue, L Atwood, EV Bandera, LC Becker, SI Berndt, L Bernstein, WJ Blot, E Boerwinkle, A Britton, G Casey, SJ Chanock, E Demerath, SL Deming, WR Diver, C Fox, TB Harris, DG Hernandez, JJ Hu, SA Ingles, EM John, C Johnson, B Keating, RA Kittles, LN Kolonel, SB Kritchevsky, L Le Marchand, K Lohman, J Liu, RC Millikan, A Murphy, S Musani, C Neslund-Dudas, KE North, S Nyante, A Ogunniyi, EA Ostrander, G Papanicolaou, S Patel, CA Pettaway, MF Press, S Redline, JL Rodriguez-Gil, C Rotimi, BA Rybicki, B Salako, PJ Schreiner, LB Signorello, AB Singleton, JL Stanford, AH Stram, DO Stram, SS Strom, B Suktitipat, MJ Thun, JS Witte, LR Yanek, RG Zieger, W Zheng, X Zhu, JM Zmuda, AB Zonderman, MK Evans, Y Liu, DM Becker, RS Cooper, T Pastinen, BE Henderson, JN Hirschhorn, G Lettre, CA Haiman. Wrote the paper: A N'Diaye, GK Chen, CD Palmer, T Pastinen, JN Hirschhorn, G Lettre, CA Haiman.