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Research Article

Genome-Wide Association of Bipolar Disorder Suggests an Enrichment of Replicable Associations in Regions near Genes

  • Erin N. Smith,

    Affiliations: Scripps Genomic Medicine and Scripps Translational Science Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Department of Pediatrics and Rady's Children's Hospital, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Scripps Health, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    X
  • Daniel L. Koller,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America

    X
  • Corrie Panganiban,

    Affiliation: Neurogenomics Division, The Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America

    X
  • Szabolcs Szelinger,

    Affiliation: Neurogenomics Division, The Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America

    X
  • Peng Zhang,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • Judith A. Badner,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

    X
  • Thomas B. Barrett,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Portland VA Medical Center, Portland, Oregon, United States of America

    X
  • Wade H. Berrettini,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Cinnamon S. Bloss,

    Affiliations: Scripps Genomic Medicine and Scripps Translational Science Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Scripps Health, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    X
  • William Byerley,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • William Coryell,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America

    X
  • Howard J. Edenberg,

    Affiliations: Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America

    X
  • Tatiana Foroud,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America

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  • Elliot S. Gershon,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Tiffany A. Greenwood,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    X
  • Yiran Guo,

    Affiliations: Center for Applied Genomics, Abramson Research Center, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Beijing Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China

    X
  • Maria Hipolito,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Howard University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

    X
  • Brendan J. Keating,

    Affiliations: Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, The Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • William B. Lawson,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Howard University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

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  • Chunyu Liu,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Pamela B. Mahon,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Melvin G. McInnis,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • Francis J. McMahon,

    Affiliation: Mood and Anxiety Section, Human Genetics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Rebecca McKinney,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    X
  • Sarah S. Murray,

    Affiliations: Scripps Genomic Medicine and Scripps Translational Science Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Scripps Health, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    X
  • Caroline M. Nievergelt,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    X
  • John I. Nurnberger Jr.,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America

    X
  • Evaristus A. Nwulia,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Howard University, Washington, D.C., United States of America

    X
  • James B. Potash,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • John Rice,

    Affiliation: Division of Biostatistics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

    X
  • Thomas G. Schulze,

    Affiliations: Mood and Anxiety Section, Human Genetics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany

    X
  • William A. Scheftner,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

    X
  • Paul D. Shilling,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    X
  • Peter P. Zandi,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Sebastian Zöllner,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • David W. Craig mail,

    jkelsoe@ucsd.edu (JRK); nschork@scripps.edu (NJS); dcraig@tgen.org (DWC)

    Affiliation: Neurogenomics Division, The Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America

    X
  • Nicholas J. Schork mail,

    jkelsoe@ucsd.edu (JRK); nschork@scripps.edu (NJS); dcraig@tgen.org (DWC)

    Affiliations: Scripps Genomic Medicine and Scripps Translational Science Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    X
  • John R. Kelsoe mail

    jkelsoe@ucsd.edu (JRK); nschork@scripps.edu (NJS); dcraig@tgen.org (DWC)

    Affiliations: Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Department of Psychiatry, VA San Diego Healthcare System, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    X
  • Published: June 30, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002134

About the Authors

Erin N. Smith, Cinnamon S. Bloss, Sarah S. Murray, Nicholas J. Schork
Scripps Genomic Medicine and Scripps Translational Science Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Erin N. Smith
Department of Pediatrics and Rady's Children's Hospital, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Erin N. Smith, Cinnamon S. Bloss, Sarah S. Murray
Scripps Health, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Daniel L. Koller, Howard J. Edenberg, Tatiana Foroud
Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America
Corrie Panganiban, Szabolcs Szelinger, David W. Craig
Neurogenomics Division, The Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America
Peng Zhang, Melvin G. McInnis, Sebastian Zöllner
Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Judith A. Badner, Elliot S. Gershon, Chunyu Liu
Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
Thomas B. Barrett
Department of Psychiatry, Portland VA Medical Center, Portland, Oregon, United States of America
Wade H. Berrettini
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
William Byerley
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
William Coryell
Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America
Howard J. Edenberg
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America
Tiffany A. Greenwood, Rebecca McKinney, Caroline M. Nievergelt, Paul D. Shilling, John R. Kelsoe
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Yiran Guo
Center for Applied Genomics, Abramson Research Center, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Yiran Guo
Beijing Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China
Maria Hipolito, William B. Lawson, Evaristus A. Nwulia
Department of Psychiatry, Howard University, Washington, D.C., United States of America
Brendan J. Keating
Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Brendan J. Keating
The Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Pamela B. Mahon, James B. Potash, Peter P. Zandi
Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Francis J. McMahon, Thomas G. Schulze
Mood and Anxiety Section, Human Genetics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
John I. Nurnberger Jr.
Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America
John Rice
Division of Biostatistics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
Thomas G. Schulze
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
William A. Scheftner
Department of Psychiatry, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
Nicholas J. Schork
Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America
John R. Kelsoe
Department of Psychiatry, VA San Diego Healthcare System, La Jolla, California, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ENS DLK TBB WHB HJE ESG TAG WBL CL MGM FJM SSM CMN JIN JBP JR TGS PPZ SZ DWC NJS JRK. Performed the experiments: DLK CP SS PZ JAB TBB HJE TF ESG TAG MH WBL CL PBM MGM FJM RM JIN EAN JR TGS PPZ JRK. Analyzed the data: ENS DLK PZ CSB TAG YG JRK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: WB WC YG BJK JIN WAS PDS DWC JRK. Wrote the paper: ENS DLK PZ WHB HJE ESG TAG CL MGM FJM JIN PPZ SZ NJS JRK.