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Research Article

Finished Genome of the Fungal Wheat Pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals Dispensome Structure, Chromosome Plasticity, and Stealth Pathogenesis

  • Stephen B. Goodwin equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Stephen B. Goodwin, Igor V. Grigoriev, Gert H. J. Kema

    Steve.Goodwin@ARS.USDA.gov, sgoodwin@purdue.edu (SBG); gert.kema@wur.nl (GHJK); IVGrigoriev@lbl.gov (IVG)

    Affiliation: USDA–Agricultural Research Service, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America

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  • Sarrah Ben M'Barek,

    Affiliation: Plant Research International B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Braham Dhillon,

    Affiliation: Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America

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  • Alexander H. J. Wittenberg,

    Affiliation: Plant Research International B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Charles F. Crane,

    Affiliation: USDA–Agricultural Research Service, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America

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  • James K. Hane,

    Affiliation: School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia

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  • Andrew J. Foster,

    Affiliation: IBWF e.V., Institute for Biotechnology and Drug Research, Kaiserslautern, Germany

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  • Theo A. J. Van der Lee,

    Affiliation: Plant Research International B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Jane Grimwood,

    Affiliations: HudsonAlpha Institute of Biotechnology, Huntsville, Alabama, United States of America, DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

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  • Andrea Aerts,

    Affiliation: DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

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  • John Antoniw,

    Affiliation: Rothamsted Research, Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Harpenden, United Kingdom

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  • Andy Bailey,

    Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Burt Bluhm,

    Affiliation: University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, United States of America

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  • Judith Bowler,

    Affiliation: Syngenta, Jealott's Hill Research Centre, Bracknell, United Kingdom

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  • Jim Bristow,

    Affiliation: DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

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  • Ate van der Burgt,

    Affiliation: Plant Research International B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Blondy Canto-Canché,

    Affiliation: Unidad de Biotecnología, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., (CICY), Mérida, México

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  • Alice C. L. Churchill,

    Affiliation: Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America

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  • Laura Conde-Ferràez,

    Affiliation: Unidad de Biotecnología, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., (CICY), Mérida, México

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  • Hans J. Cools,

    Affiliation: Rothamsted Research, Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Harpenden, United Kingdom

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  • Pedro M. Coutinho,

    Affiliation: Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, CNRS, Marseille, France

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  • Michael Csukai,

    Affiliation: Syngenta, Jealott's Hill Research Centre, Bracknell, United Kingdom

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  • Paramvir Dehal,

    Affiliation: DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

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  • Pierre De Wit,

    Affiliation: Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Bruno Donzelli,

    Affiliation: USDA–Agricultural Research Service, Ithaca, New York, United States of America

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  • Henri C. van de Geest,

    Affiliation: Plant Research International B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Roeland C. H. J. van Ham,

    Affiliation: Plant Research International B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Kim E. Hammond-Kosack,

    Affiliation: Rothamsted Research, Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Harpenden, United Kingdom

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  • Bernard Henrissat,

    Affiliation: Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, CNRS, Marseille, France

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  • Andrzej Kilian,

    Affiliation: Diversity Arrays Technology Pty Ltd, Yarralumla, Australia

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  • Adilson K. Kobayashi,

    Affiliation: Embrapa Meio-Norte, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

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  • Edda Koopmann,

    Affiliation: Bayer CropScience AG, Monheim, Germany

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  • Yiannis Kourmpetis,

    Affiliation: Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Arnold Kuzniar,

    Affiliation: Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Erika Lindquist,

    Affiliation: DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

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  • Vincent Lombard,

    Affiliation: Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, CNRS, Marseille, France

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  • Chris Maliepaard,

    Affiliation: Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Natalia Martins,

    Affiliation: Embrapa-Cenargen, Brasilia, Brazil

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  • Rahim Mehrabi,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran

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  • Jan P. H. Nap,

    Affiliation: Plant Research International B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Alisa Ponomarenko,

    Affiliation: Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America

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  • Jason J. Rudd,

    Affiliation: Rothamsted Research, Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Harpenden, United Kingdom

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  • Asaf Salamov,

    Affiliation: DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

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  • Jeremy Schmutz,

    Affiliations: HudsonAlpha Institute of Biotechnology, Huntsville, Alabama, United States of America, DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

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  • Henk J. Schouten,

    Affiliation: Plant Research International B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Harris Shapiro,

    Affiliation: DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

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  • Ioannis Stergiopoulos,

    Affiliation: Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Stefano F. F. Torriani,

    Affiliation: Plant Pathology, Institute of Integrative Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zürich, Switzerland

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  • Hank Tu,

    Affiliation: DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

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  • Ronald P. de Vries,

    Affiliation: CBS–KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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  • Cees Waalwijk,

    Affiliation: Plant Research International B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Sarah B. Ware,

    Affiliation: Plant Research International B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Ad Wiebenga,

    Affiliation: CBS–KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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  • Lute-Harm Zwiers,

    Affiliation: CBS–KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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  • Richard P. Oliver,

    Affiliation: Environment and Agriculture, Curtin University, Bentley, Australia

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  • Igor V. Grigoriev equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Stephen B. Goodwin, Igor V. Grigoriev, Gert H. J. Kema

    Steve.Goodwin@ARS.USDA.gov, sgoodwin@purdue.edu (SBG); gert.kema@wur.nl (GHJK); IVGrigoriev@lbl.gov (IVG)

    Affiliation: DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

    X
  • Gert H. J. Kema equal contributor mail

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Stephen B. Goodwin, Igor V. Grigoriev, Gert H. J. Kema

    Steve.Goodwin@ARS.USDA.gov, sgoodwin@purdue.edu (SBG); gert.kema@wur.nl (GHJK); IVGrigoriev@lbl.gov (IVG)

    Affiliation: Plant Research International B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Published: June 09, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002070

About the Authors

Stephen B. Goodwin, Charles F. Crane
USDA–Agricultural Research Service, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America
Sarrah Ben M'Barek, Alexander H. J. Wittenberg, Theo A. J. Van der Lee, Ate van der Burgt, Henri C. van de Geest, Roeland C. H. J. van Ham, Jan P. H. Nap, Henk J. Schouten, Cees Waalwijk, Sarah B. Ware, Gert H. J. Kema
Plant Research International B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands
Braham Dhillon, Alisa Ponomarenko
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America
James K. Hane
School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia
Andrew J. Foster
IBWF e.V., Institute for Biotechnology and Drug Research, Kaiserslautern, Germany
Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz
HudsonAlpha Institute of Biotechnology, Huntsville, Alabama, United States of America
Jane Grimwood, Andrea Aerts, Jim Bristow, Paramvir Dehal, Erika Lindquist, Asaf Salamov, Jeremy Schmutz, Harris Shapiro, Hank Tu, Igor V. Grigoriev
DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America
John Antoniw, Hans J. Cools, Kim E. Hammond-Kosack, Jason J. Rudd
Rothamsted Research, Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Harpenden, United Kingdom
Andy Bailey
School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
Burt Bluhm
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, United States of America
Judith Bowler, Michael Csukai
Syngenta, Jealott's Hill Research Centre, Bracknell, United Kingdom
Blondy Canto-Canché, Laura Conde-Ferràez
Unidad de Biotecnología, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., (CICY), Mérida, México
Alice C. L. Churchill
Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America
Pedro M. Coutinho, Bernard Henrissat, Vincent Lombard
Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, CNRS, Marseille, France
Pierre De Wit, Yiannis Kourmpetis, Arnold Kuzniar, Chris Maliepaard, Ioannis Stergiopoulos
Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Bruno Donzelli
USDA–Agricultural Research Service, Ithaca, New York, United States of America
Andrzej Kilian
Diversity Arrays Technology Pty Ltd, Yarralumla, Australia
Adilson K. Kobayashi
Embrapa Meio-Norte, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil
Edda Koopmann
Bayer CropScience AG, Monheim, Germany
Natalia Martins
Embrapa-Cenargen, Brasilia, Brazil
Rahim Mehrabi
Department of Genetics, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran
Stefano F. F. Torriani
Plant Pathology, Institute of Integrative Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zürich, Switzerland
Ronald P. de Vries, Ad Wiebenga, Lute-Harm Zwiers
CBS–KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Richard P. Oliver
Environment and Agriculture, Curtin University, Bentley, Australia

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SB Goodwin, IV Grigoriev, GHJ Gema. Performed the experiments: S Ben M'Barek, AHJ Wittenberg, TAJ Van der Lee, PM Coutinho, B Henrissat, V Lombard, SB Ware, C Waalwijk. Analyzed the data: SB Goodwin, S Ben M'Barek, B Dhillon, AHJ Wittenberg, CF Crane, JK Hane, AJ Foster, J Grimwood, J Antoniw, A Bailey, B Bluhm, J Bowler, A Burgt, B Canto-Canché, ACL Churchill, L Conde-Ferràez, HJ Cools, M Csukai, P Dehal, P De Wit, B Donzelli, HC van de Geest, KE Hammond-Kosack, RCHJ van Ham, B Henrissat, A Kilian, AK Kobayashi, E Koopmann, Y Kourmpetis, A Kuzniar, E Lindquist, C Maliepaard, N Martins, R Mehrabi, JPH Nap, A Ponomarenko, JJ Rudd, A Salamov, J Schmutz, HJ Schouten, I Stergiopoulos, SFF Torriani, RP de Vries, A Wiebenga, L-H Zwiers, RP Oliver, IV Grigoriev, GHJ Gema. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CF Crane, JK Hane, A Aerts, E Lindquist, H Shapiro, H Tu. Wrote the paper: SB Goodwin, GHJ Gema. Managed the Community Sequencing Program: J Bristow