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Research Article

The Architecture of Gene Regulatory Variation across Multiple Human Tissues: The MuTHER Study

  • Alexandra C. Nica,

    Affiliations: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom, Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Leopold Parts,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Daniel Glass,

    Affiliation: Department of Twin Research, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • James Nisbet,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Amy Barrett,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Magdalena Sekowska,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Mary Travers,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Simon Potter,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Elin Grundberg,

    Affiliations: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom, Department of Twin Research, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Kerrin Small,

    Affiliations: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom, Department of Twin Research, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Åsa K. Hedman,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Veronique Bataille,

    Affiliation: Department of Twin Research, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Jordana Tzenova Bell,

    Affiliations: Department of Twin Research, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Gabriela Surdulescu,

    Affiliation: Department of Twin Research, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Antigone S. Dimas,

    Affiliations: Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Catherine Ingle,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Frank O. Nestle,

    Affiliation: St. John's Institute of Dermatology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Paola di Meglio,

    Affiliation: St. John's Institute of Dermatology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Josine L. Min,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Alicja Wilk,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Christopher J. Hammond,

    Affiliation: Department of Twin Research, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Neelam Hassanali,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Tsun-Po Yang,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Stephen B. Montgomery,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Steve O'Rahilly,

    Affiliation: University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Labs, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Cecilia M. Lindgren,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Krina T. Zondervan,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Nicole Soranzo,

    Affiliations: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom, Department of Twin Research, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Inês Barroso,

    Affiliations: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom, University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Labs, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Richard Durbin,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Kourosh Ahmadi,

    Affiliation: Department of Twin Research, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Panos Deloukas mail,

    emmanouil.dermitzakis@unige.ch (ETD); tim.spector@kcl.ac.uk (TDS); mark.mccarthy@drl.ox.ac.uk (MIM); panos@sanger.ac.uk (PD)

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Mark I. McCarthy mail,

    emmanouil.dermitzakis@unige.ch (ETD); tim.spector@kcl.ac.uk (TDS); mark.mccarthy@drl.ox.ac.uk (MIM); panos@sanger.ac.uk (PD)

    Affiliations: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis mail,

    emmanouil.dermitzakis@unige.ch (ETD); tim.spector@kcl.ac.uk (TDS); mark.mccarthy@drl.ox.ac.uk (MIM); panos@sanger.ac.uk (PD)

    Affiliation: Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Timothy D. Spector mail,

    emmanouil.dermitzakis@unige.ch (ETD); tim.spector@kcl.ac.uk (TDS); mark.mccarthy@drl.ox.ac.uk (MIM); panos@sanger.ac.uk (PD)

    Affiliation: Department of Twin Research, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • The MuTHER Consortium
  • Published: February 03, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002003

About the Authors

Alexandra C. Nica, Leopold Parts, James Nisbet, Magdalena Sekowska, Simon Potter, Elin Grundberg, Kerrin Small, Catherine Ingle, Alicja Wilk, Tsun-Po Yang, Nicole Soranzo, Inês Barroso, Richard Durbin, Panos Deloukas
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom
Alexandra C. Nica, Antigone S. Dimas, Stephen B. Montgomery, Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis
Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland
Daniel Glass, Elin Grundberg, Kerrin Small, Veronique Bataille, Jordana Tzenova Bell, Gabriela Surdulescu, Christopher J. Hammond, Nicole Soranzo, Kourosh Ahmadi, Timothy D. Spector
Department of Twin Research, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
Amy Barrett, Mary Travers, Åsa K. Hedman, Jordana Tzenova Bell, Antigone S. Dimas, Josine L. Min, Neelam Hassanali, Cecilia M. Lindgren, Krina T. Zondervan, Mark I. McCarthy
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Frank O. Nestle, Paola di Meglio
St. John's Institute of Dermatology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
Steve O'Rahilly, Inês Barroso
University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Labs, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Mark I. McCarthy
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
Mark I. McCarthy
Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SO KTZ RD KA PD MIM ETD TDS. Performed the experiments: DG JN AB MS MT CI. Analyzed the data: ACN LP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EG KS ÅKH ASD TPY JLM SBM SP VB JTB GS FON PdM AW CJH NH CML NS IB. Wrote the paper: ACN ETD.