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Research Article

Widespread Hypomethylation Occurs Early and Synergizes with Gene Amplification during Esophageal Carcinogenesis

  • Hector Alvarez,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Joanna Opalinska equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Joanna Opalinska, Li Zhou

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Li Zhou equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Joanna Opalinska, Li Zhou

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Davendra Sohal,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Melissa J. Fazzari,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Yiting Yu,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Christina Montagna,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Elizabeth A. Montgomery,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Marcia Canto,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Kerry B. Dunbar,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jean Wang,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Juan Carlos Roa,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco, Chile

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  • Yongkai Mo,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Tushar Bhagat,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • K. H. Ramesh,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Linda Cannizzaro,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • J. Mollenhauer,

    Affiliation: Molecular Oncology, Medical Biotechnology Center, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

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  • Reid F. Thompson,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Masako Suzuki,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Stephen Meltzer,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Ari Melnick,

    Affiliation: Weil Cornell College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • John M. Greally mail,

    john.greally@einstein.yu.edu (JM Greally); amaitra1@jhmi.edu (A Maitra); averma@aecom.yu.edu (A Verma)

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America, Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    These authors also contributed equally to this work.

    X
  • Anirban Maitra mail,

    john.greally@einstein.yu.edu (JM Greally); amaitra1@jhmi.edu (A Maitra); averma@aecom.yu.edu (A Verma)

    Affiliations: Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    These authors also contributed equally to this work.

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  • Amit Verma mail

    john.greally@einstein.yu.edu (JM Greally); amaitra1@jhmi.edu (A Maitra); averma@aecom.yu.edu (A Verma)

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    These authors also contributed equally to this work.

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  • Published: March 31, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001356

About the Authors

Hector Alvarez, Elizabeth A. Montgomery, Anirban Maitra
Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Joanna Opalinska, Li Zhou, Davendra Sohal, Yiting Yu, Christina Montagna, Yongkai Mo, Tushar Bhagat, Linda Cannizzaro, Reid F. Thompson, Masako Suzuki, John M. Greally, Amit Verma
Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America
Melissa J. Fazzari
Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America
Marcia Canto, Kerry B. Dunbar, Jean Wang, Stephen Meltzer
Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Juan Carlos Roa
Department of Pathology, Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco, Chile
K. H. Ramesh
Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America
J. Mollenhauer
Molecular Oncology, Medical Biotechnology Center, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
Ari Melnick
Weil Cornell College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America
John M. Greally
Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America
Anirban Maitra
Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Anirban Maitra
McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: A Verma, JC Roa, Y Mo, KH Ramesh, A Maitra. Performed the experiments: H Alvarez, J Opalinska, L Zhou, C Montagna, T Bhagat, L Cannizzaro. Analyzed the data: H Alvarez, D Sohal, MJ Fazzari, Y Yu, RF Thompson, M Suzuki, SJ Meltzer, A Melnick. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EA Montgomery, M Canto, KB Dunbar, J Wang, J Mollenhauer. Wrote the paper: A Verma, A Maitra.