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Research Article

Genome-Wide Association Studies of the PR Interval in African Americans

  • J. Gustav Smith equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: J. Gustav Smith, Jared W. Magnani, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Emelia J. Benjamin, Reena Mehra, Alvaro Alonso, Susan R. Heckbert, Ervin R. Fox

    gustav.smith@med.lu.se

    Affiliations: Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Program for Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Jared W. Magnani equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: J. Gustav Smith, Jared W. Magnani, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Emelia J. Benjamin, Reena Mehra, Alvaro Alonso, Susan R. Heckbert, Ervin R. Fox

    Affiliations: Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Cameron Palmer,

    Affiliation: Program for Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Yan A. Meng,

    Affiliation: Program for Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Elsayed Z. Soliman,

    Affiliation: Epidemiological Cardiology Center (EPICARE), Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Solomon K. Musani,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson Heart Study, Jackson, Mississippi, United States of America

    X
  • Kathleen F. Kerr,

    Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

    X
  • Renate B. Schnabel,

    Affiliation: Medical Clinic 2 (Cardiology), Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany

    X
  • Steven A. Lubitz,

    Affiliations: Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Nona Sotoodehnia,

    Affiliation: Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

    X
  • Susan Redline,

    Affiliation: Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America

    X
  • Arne Pfeufer,

    Affiliations: Institute of Human Genetics, Klinikum Rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, München, Germany, Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Centrum München, Neuherberg, Germany

    X
  • Martina Müller,

    Affiliations: Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology and Department of Medicine I, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany, Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

    X
  • Daniel S. Evans,

    Affiliation: Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

    X
  • Michael A. Nalls,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Yongmei Liu,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Anne B. Newman,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Alan B. Zonderman,

    Affiliation: National Institute on Aging, National Institute on Aging/NIH–Intramural Research Program, NIH Biomedical Research Center, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Michele K. Evans,

    Affiliation: National Institute on Aging, National Institute on Aging/NIH–Intramural Research Program, NIH Biomedical Research Center, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Rajat Deo,

    Affiliation: Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • Patrick T. Ellinor,

    Affiliations: Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Dina N. Paltoo,

    Affiliation: Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Christopher Newton-Cheh equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: J. Gustav Smith, Jared W. Magnani, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Emelia J. Benjamin, Reena Mehra, Alvaro Alonso, Susan R. Heckbert, Ervin R. Fox

    Affiliations: Program for Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Emelia J. Benjamin equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: J. Gustav Smith, Jared W. Magnani, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Emelia J. Benjamin, Reena Mehra, Alvaro Alonso, Susan R. Heckbert, Ervin R. Fox

    Affiliations: Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Boston University, Massachusetts, United States of America, Division of Preventive Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Reena Mehra equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: J. Gustav Smith, Jared W. Magnani, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Emelia J. Benjamin, Reena Mehra, Alvaro Alonso, Susan R. Heckbert, Ervin R. Fox

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Case School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America

    X
  • Alvaro Alonso equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: J. Gustav Smith, Jared W. Magnani, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Emelia J. Benjamin, Reena Mehra, Alvaro Alonso, Susan R. Heckbert, Ervin R. Fox

    Affiliation: Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America

    X
  • Susan R. Heckbert equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: J. Gustav Smith, Jared W. Magnani, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Emelia J. Benjamin, Reena Mehra, Alvaro Alonso, Susan R. Heckbert, Ervin R. Fox

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

    X
  • Ervin R. Fox equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: J. Gustav Smith, Jared W. Magnani, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Emelia J. Benjamin, Reena Mehra, Alvaro Alonso, Susan R. Heckbert, Ervin R. Fox

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson Heart Study, Jackson, Mississippi, United States of America

    X
  • Candidate-gene Association Resource (CARe) Consortium

    Information on the Candidate-gene Association Resource (CARe) Consortium is provided in the Acknowledgments.

    X
  • Published: February 10, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001304

About the Authors

J. Gustav Smith
Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
J. Gustav Smith, Cameron Palmer, Yan A. Meng, Christopher Newton-Cheh
Program for Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
Jared W. Magnani, Emelia J. Benjamin
Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Jared W. Magnani, Emelia J. Benjamin
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts, United States of America
Elsayed Z. Soliman
Epidemiological Cardiology Center (EPICARE), Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America
Solomon K. Musani, Ervin R. Fox
Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson Heart Study, Jackson, Mississippi, United States of America
Kathleen F. Kerr
Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Renate B. Schnabel
Medical Clinic 2 (Cardiology), Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
Steven A. Lubitz
Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Steven A. Lubitz, Patrick T. Ellinor, Christopher Newton-Cheh
Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Nona Sotoodehnia
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Susan Redline
Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America
Arne Pfeufer
Institute of Human Genetics, Klinikum Rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, München, Germany
Arne Pfeufer
Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Centrum München, Neuherberg, Germany
Martina Müller
Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology and Department of Medicine I, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany
Martina Müller
Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany
Daniel S. Evans
Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Michael A. Nalls
Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Yongmei Liu
Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America
Anne B. Newman
Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Alan B. Zonderman, Michele K. Evans
National Institute on Aging, National Institute on Aging/NIH–Intramural Research Program, NIH Biomedical Research Center, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Rajat Deo
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Patrick T. Ellinor, Christopher Newton-Cheh
Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Dina N. Paltoo
Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Emelia J. Benjamin
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Boston University, Massachusetts, United States of America
Emelia J. Benjamin
Division of Preventive Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Emelia J. Benjamin
Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Reena Mehra
Department of Medicine, Case School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America
Alvaro Alonso
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
Susan R. Heckbert
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: gustav.smith@med.lu.se

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JGS JWM CNC EJB RM AA SRH EF. Performed the experiments: JGS CP YAM. Analyzed the data: JGS CP YAM CNC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JGS CP YAM AP MM DSE MAN YL ABN ABZ MKE CNC. Wrote the paper: JGS JWM. Interpreted the results and revised the paper: EZS SKM KK RBS SAL NS SR AP MM DSE MAN RD PE DNP CNC RM EJB AA SRH EF.