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Research Article

Prevalence of Epistasis in the Evolution of Influenza A Surface Proteins

  • Sergey Kryazhimskiy,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    Current address: Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Jonathan Dushoff,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada

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  • Georgii A. Bazykin,

    Affiliation: Institute for Information Transmission Problems (Kharkevich Institute) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

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  • Joshua B. Plotkin mail

    jplotkin@sas.upenn.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Program in Applied Mathematics and Computational Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Published: February 17, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001301

About the Authors

Sergey Kryazhimskiy, Joshua B. Plotkin
Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Jonathan Dushoff
Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
Georgii A. Bazykin
Institute for Information Transmission Problems (Kharkevich Institute) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Joshua B. Plotkin
Program in Applied Mathematics and Computational Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: jplotkin@sas.upenn.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SK JD GAB JBP. Performed the experiments: SK. Analyzed the data: SK JBP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JD JBP. Wrote the paper: SK JD GAB JBP.