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Research Article

Common Genetic Variation and the Control of HIV-1 in Humans

  • Jacques Fellay equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Jacques Fellay, Dongliang Ge

    Affiliation: Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Dongliang Ge equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Jacques Fellay, Dongliang Ge

    Affiliation: Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Kevin V. Shianna,

    Affiliations: Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Genomic Analysis Facility, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Sara Colombo,

    Affiliation: Institute of Microbiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

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  • Bruno Ledergerber,

    Affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

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  • Elizabeth T. Cirulli,

    Affiliation: Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Thomas J. Urban,

    Affiliation: Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Kunlin Zhang,

    Affiliations: Institute of Microbiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, Behavioral Genetics Center, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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  • Curtis E. Gumbs,

    Affiliation: Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Jason P. Smith,

    Affiliation: Genomic Analysis Facility, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Antonella Castagna,

    Affiliation: Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University and Diagnostica and Ricerca San Raffaele, Milan, Italy

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  • Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri,

    Affiliation: Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Andrea De Luca,

    Affiliation: Institute of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy

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  • Philippa Easterbrook,

    Affiliation: Academic Department of HIV/GUM, Kings College London at Guy's, King's, and St. Thomas' Hospitals, Weston Education Centre, London, United Kingdom

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  • Huldrych F. Günthard,

    Affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

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  • Simon Mallal,

    Affiliation: Centre for Clinical Immunology and Biomedical Statistics, Institute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Perth Hospital and Murdoch University, Perth, Australia

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  • Cristina Mussini,

    Affiliation: Infectious Diseases Clinics, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Modena, Italy

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  • Judith Dalmau,

    Affiliation: IrsiCaixa Foundation and Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain

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  • Javier Martinez-Picado,

    Affiliations: IrsiCaixa Foundation and Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain

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  • José M. Miro,

    Affiliation: Hospital Clinic – IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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  • Niels Obel,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Steven M. Wolinsky,

    Affiliation: Division of Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Jeremy J. Martinson,

    Affiliation: Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Roger Detels,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Joseph B. Margolick,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Lisa P. Jacobson,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Patrick Descombes,

    Affiliation: Genomics Platform, National Centre of Competence in Research “Frontiers in Genetics,” University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Stylianos E. Antonarakis,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland

    X
  • Jacques S. Beckmann,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, and Service of Medical Genetics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland

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  • Stephen J. O'Brien,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Norman L. Letvin,

    Affiliation: Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Andrew J. McMichael,

    Affiliation: MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Barton F. Haynes,

    Affiliation: Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Mary Carrington,

    Affiliations: Cancer and Inflammation Program, Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America, Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT and Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Sheng Feng,

    Affiliation: Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Amalio Telenti mail,

    d.goldstein@duke.edu (DBG); amalio.telenti@chuv.ch (AT)

    Affiliation: Institute of Microbiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

    X
  • David B. Goldstein mail,

    d.goldstein@duke.edu (DBG); amalio.telenti@chuv.ch (AT)

    Affiliation: Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • NIAID Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI)
  • Published: December 24, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000791

About the Authors

Jacques Fellay, Dongliang Ge, Kevin V. Shianna, Elizabeth T. Cirulli, Thomas J. Urban, Curtis E. Gumbs, Sheng Feng, David B. Goldstein
Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
Kevin V. Shianna, Jason P. Smith
Genomic Analysis Facility, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
Sara Colombo, Kunlin Zhang, Amalio Telenti
Institute of Microbiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Bruno Ledergerber, Huldrych F. Günthard
Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Kunlin Zhang
Behavioral Genetics Center, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Antonella Castagna
Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University and Diagnostica and Ricerca San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri
Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Andrea De Luca
Institute of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy
Philippa Easterbrook
Academic Department of HIV/GUM, Kings College London at Guy's, King's, and St. Thomas' Hospitals, Weston Education Centre, London, United Kingdom
Simon Mallal
Centre for Clinical Immunology and Biomedical Statistics, Institute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Perth Hospital and Murdoch University, Perth, Australia
Cristina Mussini
Infectious Diseases Clinics, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Modena, Italy
Judith Dalmau, Javier Martinez-Picado
IrsiCaixa Foundation and Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain
Javier Martinez-Picado
Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain
José M. Miro
Hospital Clinic – IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Niels Obel
Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Steven M. Wolinsky
Division of Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
Jeremy J. Martinson
Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Roger Detels
Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
Joseph B. Margolick
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Lisa P. Jacobson
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Patrick Descombes
Genomics Platform, National Centre of Competence in Research “Frontiers in Genetics,” University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
Stylianos E. Antonarakis
Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland
Jacques S. Beckmann
Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, and Service of Medical Genetics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland
Stephen J. O'Brien
Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America
Norman L. Letvin
Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Andrew J. McMichael
MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
Barton F. Haynes
Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
Mary Carrington
Cancer and Inflammation Program, Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America
Mary Carrington
Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT and Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JF JSB NLL AJM BFH MC AT DBG. Performed the experiments: JF KVS TJU CEG JPS PD. Analyzed the data: JF DG BL ETC KZ SF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KVS SC BL AC ACL ADL PE HFG SM CM JD JMP JMM NO SMW JJM RD JBM LPJ SEA SJO BFH MC AT. Wrote the paper: JF AT DBG.