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Research Article

Genetic Determinants of Circulating Sphingolipid Concentrations in European Populations

  • Andrew A. Hicks equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Andrew A. Hicks, Åsa Johansson, Veronique Vitart, Peter Ugocsai, Yurii Aulchenko

    Affiliation: Institute of Genetic Medicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano, Italy, Affiliated Institute of the University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany

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  • Peter P. Pramstaller mail,

    peter.pramstaller@eurac.edu (PPP); harry.campbell@ed.ac.uk (HC)

    Affiliations: Institute of Genetic Medicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano, Italy, Affiliated Institute of the University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany, Department of Neurology, General Central Hospital, Bolzano, Italy, Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany

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  • Åsa Johansson equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Andrew A. Hicks, Åsa Johansson, Veronique Vitart, Peter Ugocsai, Yurii Aulchenko

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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  • Veronique Vitart equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Andrew A. Hicks, Åsa Johansson, Veronique Vitart, Peter Ugocsai, Yurii Aulchenko

    Affiliation: MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Igor Rudan,

    Affiliations: Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, Croatian Centre for Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Split, Split, Croatia, Gen-info Ltd, Zagreb, Croatia

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  • Peter Ugocsai equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Andrew A. Hicks, Åsa Johansson, Veronique Vitart, Peter Ugocsai, Yurii Aulchenko

    Affiliation: Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

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  • Yurii Aulchenko equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Andrew A. Hicks, Åsa Johansson, Veronique Vitart, Peter Ugocsai, Yurii Aulchenko

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Christopher S. Franklin,

    Affiliation: Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Gerhard Liebisch,

    Affiliation: Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

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  • Jeanette Erdmann,

    Affiliation: Medizinische Klinik II, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany

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  • Inger Jonasson,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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  • Irina V. Zorkoltseva,

    Affiliation: Institute of Cytology and Genetics SD RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

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  • Cristian Pattaro,

    Affiliation: Institute of Genetic Medicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano, Italy, Affiliated Institute of the University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany

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  • Caroline Hayward,

    Affiliation: MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Aaron Isaacs,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Christian Hengstenberg,

    Affiliation: Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin II, Universität Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

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  • Susan Campbell,

    Affiliation: MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Carsten Gnewuch,

    Affiliation: Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

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  • A. CecileJ.W. Janssens,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Anatoly V. Kirichenko,

    Affiliation: Institute of Cytology and Genetics SD RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

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  • Inke R. König,

    Affiliation: Institut für Medizinische Biometrie und Statistik, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany

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  • Fabio Marroni,

    Affiliation: Institute of Genetic Medicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano, Italy, Affiliated Institute of the University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany

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  • Ozren Polasek,

    Affiliations: Gen-info Ltd, Zagreb, Croatia, Andrija Stampar School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

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  • Ayse Demirkan,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Ivana Kolcic,

    Affiliation: Andrija Stampar School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

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  • Christine Schwienbacher,

    Affiliations: Institute of Genetic Medicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano, Italy, Affiliated Institute of the University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany, Department of Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy

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  • Wilmar Igl,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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  • Zrinka Biloglav,

    Affiliation: Andrija Stampar School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

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  • Jacqueline C. M. Witteman,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Irene Pichler,

    Affiliation: Institute of Genetic Medicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano, Italy, Affiliated Institute of the University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany

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  • Ghazal Zaboli,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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  • Tatiana I. Axenovich,

    Affiliation: Institute of Cytology and Genetics SD RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

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  • Annette Peters,

    Affiliation: Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München – German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • Stefan Schreiber,

    Affiliation: Institut für Klinische Molekularbiologie, Christian-Albrechts Universität, Kiel, Germany

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  • H.-Erich Wichmann,

    Affiliations: Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München – German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, Institute of Medical Information Science, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology, LMU Munich, Germany

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  • Heribert Schunkert,

    Affiliation: Medizinische Klinik II, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany

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  • Nick Hastie,

    Affiliation: MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Ben A. Oostra,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Sarah H. Wild,

    Affiliation: Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Thomas Meitinger ,

    Affiliation: Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Munich, Germany

    These authors are joint senior authors on this work.

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  • Ulf Gyllensten ,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

    These authors are joint senior authors on this work.

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  • Cornelia M. van Duijn ,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    These authors are joint senior authors on this work.

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  • James F. Wilson ,

    Affiliation: Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

    These authors are joint senior authors on this work.

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  • Alan Wright ,

    Affiliation: MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

    These authors are joint senior authors on this work.

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  • Gerd Schmitz ,

    Affiliation: Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

    These authors are joint senior authors on this work.

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  • Harry Campbell mail

    peter.pramstaller@eurac.edu (PPP); harry.campbell@ed.ac.uk (HC)

    Affiliation: Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Published: October 02, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000672

About the Authors

Andrew A. Hicks, Peter P. Pramstaller, Cristian Pattaro, Fabio Marroni, Christine Schwienbacher, Irene Pichler
Institute of Genetic Medicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano, Italy, Affiliated Institute of the University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
Peter P. Pramstaller
Department of Neurology, General Central Hospital, Bolzano, Italy
Peter P. Pramstaller
Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
Åsa Johansson, Inger Jonasson, Wilmar Igl, Ghazal Zaboli, Ulf Gyllensten
Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Veronique Vitart, Caroline Hayward, Susan Campbell, Nick Hastie, Alan Wright
MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Igor Rudan, Christopher S. Franklin, Sarah H. Wild, James F. Wilson, Harry Campbell
Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Igor Rudan
Croatian Centre for Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Split, Split, Croatia
Igor Rudan, Ozren Polasek
Gen-info Ltd, Zagreb, Croatia
Peter Ugocsai, Gerhard Liebisch, Carsten Gnewuch, Gerd Schmitz
Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
Yurii Aulchenko, Aaron Isaacs, A. CecileJ.W. Janssens, Ayse Demirkan, Jacqueline C. M. Witteman, Cornelia M. van Duijn
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Jeanette Erdmann, Heribert Schunkert
Medizinische Klinik II, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
Irina V. Zorkoltseva, Anatoly V. Kirichenko, Tatiana I. Axenovich
Institute of Cytology and Genetics SD RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Christian Hengstenberg
Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin II, Universität Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
Inke R. König
Institut für Medizinische Biometrie und Statistik, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
Ozren Polasek, Ivana Kolcic, Zrinka Biloglav
Andrija Stampar School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
Christine Schwienbacher
Department of Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
Annette Peters, H.-Erich Wichmann
Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München – German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany
Stefan Schreiber
Institut für Klinische Molekularbiologie, Christian-Albrechts Universität, Kiel, Germany
H.-Erich Wichmann
Institute of Medical Information Science, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology, LMU Munich, Germany
Ben A. Oostra
Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Thomas Meitinger
Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Munich, Germany

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: P.P. Pramstaller, I. Rudan, J.C.M. Witteman, N. Hastie, B.A. Oostra, T. Meitinger, U. Gyllensten, C.M. van Duijn, J.F. Wilson, A.F. Wright, G. Schmitz, H. Campbell. Performed the experiments: I. Rudan, P. Ugocsai, G. Liebisch, I. Jonasson, C. Hayward, S. Campbell, C. Gnewuch, O. Polasek, I. Kolcic, C. Schwienbacher, Z. Biloglav, I. Pichler, S.H. Wild, T. Meitinger, U. Gyllensten, J.F. Wilson, H. Campbell. Analyzed the data: A.A. Hicks, Å. Johansson, V. Vitart, Y.S. Aulchenko, C.S. Franklin, G. Liebisch, I.V. Zorkolsteva, C. Pattaro, C. Hayward, A. Issacs, A.C.J.W. Janssens, A.V. Kirichenko, F. Marroni, A. Demirkan, W. Igl, G. Zaboli, C.M. van Duijn. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: P.P. Pramstaller, I. Rudan, Y.S. Aulchenko, G. Liebisch, O. Polasek, I. Kolcic, Z. Biloglav, J.C.M. Witteman, T. Axenovich, N. Hastie, B.A. Oostra, T. Meitinger, U. Gyllensten, C.M. van Duijn, J.F. Wilson, A.F. Wright, G. Schmitz, H. Campbell. Wrote the paper: A.A. Hicks, P.P. Pramstaller, Å. Johansson, V. Vitart, I. Rudan, P. Ugocsai, C.M. van Duijn, J.F. Wilson, G. Schmitz, H. Campbell. Responsible for generating the MI association data: J. Erdmann, C. Hengstenberg, I. König, A. Peters, S. Schreiber, H.-E. Wichmann, H. Schunkert.