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Research Article

Evolutionary Dynamics of Human Toll-Like Receptors and Their Different Contributions to Host Defense

  • Luis B. Barreiro,

    Affiliations: Institut Pasteur, Human Evolutionary Genetics, CNRS, URA3012, Paris, France, Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Meriem Ben-Ali,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Human Evolutionary Genetics, CNRS, URA3012, Paris, France

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  • Hélène Quach,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Human Evolutionary Genetics, CNRS, URA3012, Paris, France

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  • Guillaume Laval,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Human Evolutionary Genetics, CNRS, URA3012, Paris, France

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  • Etienne Patin,

    Affiliations: Institut Pasteur, Human Evolutionary Genetics, CNRS, URA3012, Paris, France, Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U550, Necker Medical School, Paris, France

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  • Joseph K. Pickrell,

    Affiliation: Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Christiane Bouchier,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Plate-forme Génomique, Pasteur Genopole, Paris, France

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  • Magali Tichit,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Plate-forme Génomique, Pasteur Genopole, Paris, France

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  • Olivier Neyrolles,

    Affiliation: IPBS/CNRS, Toulouse, France

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  • Brigitte Gicquel,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Mycobacterial Genetics Unit, Paris, France

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  • Judith R. Kidd,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Kenneth K. Kidd,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Alexandre Alcaïs,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U550, Necker Medical School, Paris, France, University Paris René Descartes, Necker Medical School, Paris, France

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  • Josiane Ragimbeau,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Cytokine Signaling Unit, CNRS, URA1961, Paris, France

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  • Sandra Pellegrini,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Cytokine Signaling Unit, CNRS, URA1961, Paris, France

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  • Laurent Abel,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U550, Necker Medical School, Paris, France, University Paris René Descartes, Necker Medical School, Paris, France, Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Jean-Laurent Casanova,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U550, Necker Medical School, Paris, France, University Paris René Descartes, Necker Medical School, Paris, France, Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Lluís Quintana-Murci mail

    quintana@pasteur.fr

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Human Evolutionary Genetics, CNRS, URA3012, Paris, France

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  • Published: July 17, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000562

About the Authors

Luis B. Barreiro, Meriem Ben-Ali, Hélène Quach, Guillaume Laval, Etienne Patin, Lluís Quintana-Murci
Institut Pasteur, Human Evolutionary Genetics, CNRS, URA3012, Paris, France
Luis B. Barreiro, Joseph K. Pickrell
Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
Etienne Patin, Alexandre Alcaïs, Laurent Abel, Jean-Laurent Casanova
Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U550, Necker Medical School, Paris, France
Christiane Bouchier, Magali Tichit
Institut Pasteur, Plate-forme Génomique, Pasteur Genopole, Paris, France
Olivier Neyrolles
IPBS/CNRS, Toulouse, France
Brigitte Gicquel
Institut Pasteur, Mycobacterial Genetics Unit, Paris, France
Judith R. Kidd, Kenneth K. Kidd
Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
Alexandre Alcaïs, Laurent Abel, Jean-Laurent Casanova
University Paris René Descartes, Necker Medical School, Paris, France
Josiane Ragimbeau, Sandra Pellegrini
Institut Pasteur, Cytokine Signaling Unit, CNRS, URA1961, Paris, France
Laurent Abel, Jean-Laurent Casanova
Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: quintana@pasteur.fr

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: LBB LQM. Performed the experiments: LBB MBA HQ MT. Analyzed the data: LBB GL EP JKP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CB ON BG JRK KKK AA JR SP LA JLC LQM. Wrote the paper: LBB JLC LQM.