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Research Article

Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution

  • Cecilia M. Lindgren equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Cecilia M. Lindgren, Iris M. Heid, Joshua C. Randall, Claudia Lamina, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, , Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Iris M. Heid equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Cecilia M. Lindgren, Iris M. Heid, Joshua C. Randall, Claudia Lamina, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir

    Affiliations: Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

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  • Joshua C. Randall equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Cecilia M. Lindgren, Iris M. Heid, Joshua C. Randall, Claudia Lamina, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, , Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Claudia Lamina equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Cecilia M. Lindgren, Iris M. Heid, Joshua C. Randall, Claudia Lamina, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir

    Affiliations: Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany, Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Medical Genetics, Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria

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  • Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Cecilia M. Lindgren, Iris M. Heid, Joshua C. Randall, Claudia Lamina, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir

    Affiliation: deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland

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  • Lu Qi,

    Affiliations: Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Elizabeth K. Speliotes,

    Affiliations: Department of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Metabolism Initiative and Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Gudmar Thorleifsson,

    Affiliation: deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland

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  • Cristen J. Willer,

    Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics, Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Blanca M. Herrera,

    Affiliations: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, , Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Anne U. Jackson,

    Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics, Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Noha Lim,

    Affiliation: Medical Genetics, Clinical Pharmacology and Discovery Medicine, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Paul Scheet,

    Affiliations: Department of Biostatistics, Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America, Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Nicole Soranzo,

    Affiliations: Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Najaf Amin,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Yurii S. Aulchenko,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • John C. Chambers,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Alexander Drong,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, , Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Jian'an Luan,

    Affiliation: MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Helen N. Lyon,

    Affiliations: Metabolism Initiative and Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Divisions of Genetics and Endocrinology, Program in Genomics, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Fernando Rivadeneira,

    Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Serena Sanna,

    Affiliation: Istituto di Neurogenetica e Neurofarmacologia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Cagliari, Italy

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  • Nicholas J. Timpson,

    Affiliation: The MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • M. Carola Zillikens,

    Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Jing Hua Zhao,

    Affiliation: MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Peter Almgren,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes, and Endocrinology Research Unit, University Hospital Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden

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  • Stefania Bandinelli,

    Affiliation: Geriatric Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Firenze (ASF), Florence, Italy

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  • Amanda J. Bennett,

    Affiliation: Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Richard N. Bergman,

    Affiliation: Physiology and Biophysics, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Lori L. Bonnycastle,

    Affiliation: National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Suzannah J. Bumpstead,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Stephen J. Chanock,

    Affiliation: Pediatric Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Lynn Cherkas,

    Affiliation: Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Peter Chines,

    Affiliation: National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Lachlan Coin,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Cyrus Cooper,

    Affiliation: MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Gabriel Crawford,

    Affiliation: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Angela Doering,

    Affiliation: Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • Anna Dominiczak,

    Affiliation: BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

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  • Alex S. F. Doney,

    Affiliation: Diabetes Research Group, Division of Medicine and Therapeutics, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom

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  • Shah Ebrahim,

    Affiliation: Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Paul Elliott,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Michael R. Erdos,

    Affiliation: National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Karol Estrada,

    Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Luigi Ferrucci,

    Affiliation: Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Guido Fischer,

    Affiliation: Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • Nita G. Forouhi,

    Affiliation: MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Christian Gieger,

    Affiliation: Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • Harald Grallert,

    Affiliation: Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • Christopher J. Groves,

    Affiliation: Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Scott Grundy,

    Affiliation: Centre for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Centre, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

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  • Candace Guiducci,

    Affiliation: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • David Hadley,

    Affiliation: Division of Community Health Sciences, St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Anders Hamsten,

    Affiliation: Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Aki S. Havulinna,

    Affiliation: KTL-National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Albert Hofman,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Rolf Holle,

    Affiliation: Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • John W. Holloway,

    Affiliations: MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom, Division of Human Genetics, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Thomas Illig,

    Affiliation: Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • Bo Isomaa,

    Affiliation: Folkhälsan Research Center, Malmska Municipal Health Center and Hospital, Jakobstad, Finland

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  • Leonie C. Jacobs,

    Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Karen Jameson,

    Affiliation: MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Pekka Jousilahti,

    Affiliation: KTL-National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Fredrik Karpe,

    Affiliation: Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Johanna Kuusisto,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Jaana Laitinen,

    Affiliation: Finnish Institute of Occpational Health, Oulu, Finland

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  • G. Mark Lathrop,

    Affiliation: Centre National de Genotypage, Evry, France

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  • Debbie A. Lawlor,

    Affiliations: The MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Massimo Mangino,

    Affiliation: Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Wendy L. McArdle,

    Affiliation: Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Thomas Meitinger,

    Affiliation: Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • Mario A. Morken,

    Affiliation: National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Andrew P. Morris,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, , Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Patricia Munroe,

    Affiliation: The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Narisu Narisu,

    Affiliation: National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Anna Nordström,

    Affiliations: Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Section for Sports Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Geriatrics, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden

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  • Peter Nordström,

    Affiliations: Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Section for Sports Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Geriatrics, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden

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  • Ben A. Oostra,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Colin N. A. Palmer,

    Affiliation: Population Pharmacogenetics Group, Biomedical Research Centre, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom

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  • Felicity Payne,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • John F. Peden,

    Affiliations: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, , Oxford, United Kingdom, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Inga Prokopenko,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, , Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Frida Renström,

    Affiliation: Genetic Epidemiology and Clinical Research Group, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section for Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden

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  • Aimo Ruokonen,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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  • Veikko Salomaa,

    Affiliation: KTL-National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Manjinder S. Sandhu,

    Affiliations: MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Laura J. Scott,

    Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics, Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Angelo Scuteri,

    Affiliation: Unita' Operativa Geriatrica, Instituto Nazionale Ricovero e Cura per Anziani (INRCA) IRCCS, Rome, Italy

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  • Kaisa Silander,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Medicine, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Kijoung Song,

    Affiliation: Medical Genetics, Clinical Pharmacology and Discovery Medicine, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Xin Yuan,

    Affiliation: Medical Genetics, Clinical Pharmacology and Discovery Medicine, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Heather M. Stringham,

    Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics, Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Amy J. Swift,

    Affiliation: National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Tiinamaija Tuomi,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Research Program of Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Manuela Uda,

    Affiliation: Istituto di Neurogenetica e Neurofarmacologia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Cagliari, Italy

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  • Peter Vollenweider,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine and Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland

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  • Gerard Waeber,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine and Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland

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  • Chris Wallace,

    Affiliation: The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • G. Bragi Walters,

    Affiliation: deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland

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  • Michael N. Weedon,

    Affiliation: Genetics of Complex Traits, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, United Kingdom

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  • The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium,

    A full list of members is provided in Text S1.

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  • Jacqueline C. M. Witteman,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Cuilin Zhang,

    Affiliation: Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Weihua Zhang,

    Affiliation: Ealing Hospital, Ealing Hospital National Health Service Trust, Southall, London, United Kingdom

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  • Mark J. Caulfield,

    Affiliation: The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Francis S. Collins,

    Affiliation: National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • George Davey Smith,

    Affiliations: The MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Ian N. M. Day,

    Affiliation: Bristol Genetic Epidemiology Laboratories, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Paul W. Franks,

    Affiliations: Genetic Epidemiology and Clinical Research Group, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section for Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section for Nutritional Research (Umeå Medical Biobank), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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  • Andrew T. Hattersley,

    Affiliation: Genetics of Complex Traits, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, United Kingdom

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  • Frank B. Hu,

    Affiliations: Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin,

    Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Department of Child and Adolescent Health, National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland

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  • Augustine Kong,

    Affiliation: deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland

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  • Jaspal S. Kooner,

    Affiliation: National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom

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  • Markku Laakso,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Edward Lakatta,

    Affiliation: Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of Ameica

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  • Vincent Mooser,

    Affiliation: Medical Genetics, Clinical Pharmacology and Discovery Medicine, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Andrew D. Morris,

    Affiliation: Diabetes Research Group, Division of Medicine and Therapeutics, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom

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  • Leena Peltonen,

    Affiliations: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Nilesh J. Samani,

    Affiliation: Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom

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  • Timothy D. Spector,

    Affiliation: Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • David P. Strachan,

    Affiliation: Division of Community Health Sciences, St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Toshiko Tanaka,

    Affiliations: Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Medstar Research Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jaakko Tuomilehto,

    Affiliation: Diabetes Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland

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  • André G. Uitterlinden,

    Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Cornelia M. van Duijn,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Nicholas J. Wareham,

    Affiliation: MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Hugh Watkins for the PROCARDIS consortia,

    Affiliations: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, , Oxford, United Kingdom, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Dawn M. Waterworth,

    Affiliation: Medical Genetics, Clinical Pharmacology and Discovery Medicine, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Michael Boehnke,

    Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics, Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Panos Deloukas,

    Affiliation: Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Leif Groop,

    Affiliations: Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes, and Endocrinology Research Unit, University Hospital Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • David J. Hunter,

    Affiliations: Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Molecular and Genetic Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Unnur Thorsteinsdottir,

    Affiliations: deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland

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  • David Schlessinger,

    Affiliation: Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of Ameica

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  • H.-Erich Wichmann,

    Affiliation: Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • Timothy M. Frayling,

    Affiliation: Genetics of Complex Traits, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, United Kingdom

    X
  • Gonçalo R. Abecasis mail,

    goncalo@umich.edu (GRA); joelh@broad.mit.edu (JNH); rjfl2@medschl.cam.ac.uk (RJFL); kari.stefansson@decode.is (KS); mohlke@med.unc.edu (KLM); ib1@sanger.ac.uk (IB); mark.mccarthy@drl.ox.ac.uk (MIM)

    Affiliation: Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • Joel N. Hirschhorn mail,

    goncalo@umich.edu (GRA); joelh@broad.mit.edu (JNH); rjfl2@medschl.cam.ac.uk (RJFL); kari.stefansson@decode.is (KS); mohlke@med.unc.edu (KLM); ib1@sanger.ac.uk (IB); mark.mccarthy@drl.ox.ac.uk (MIM)

    Affiliations: Metabolism Initiative and Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Divisions of Genetics and Endocrinology, Program in Genomics, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Ruth J. F. Loos mail,

    goncalo@umich.edu (GRA); joelh@broad.mit.edu (JNH); rjfl2@medschl.cam.ac.uk (RJFL); kari.stefansson@decode.is (KS); mohlke@med.unc.edu (KLM); ib1@sanger.ac.uk (IB); mark.mccarthy@drl.ox.ac.uk (MIM)

    Affiliation: MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Kari Stefansson mail,

    goncalo@umich.edu (GRA); joelh@broad.mit.edu (JNH); rjfl2@medschl.cam.ac.uk (RJFL); kari.stefansson@decode.is (KS); mohlke@med.unc.edu (KLM); ib1@sanger.ac.uk (IB); mark.mccarthy@drl.ox.ac.uk (MIM)

    Affiliations: deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland

    X
  • Karen L. Mohlke mail,

    goncalo@umich.edu (GRA); joelh@broad.mit.edu (JNH); rjfl2@medschl.cam.ac.uk (RJFL); kari.stefansson@decode.is (KS); mohlke@med.unc.edu (KLM); ib1@sanger.ac.uk (IB); mark.mccarthy@drl.ox.ac.uk (MIM)

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Inês Barroso mail,

    goncalo@umich.edu (GRA); joelh@broad.mit.edu (JNH); rjfl2@medschl.cam.ac.uk (RJFL); kari.stefansson@decode.is (KS); mohlke@med.unc.edu (KLM); ib1@sanger.ac.uk (IB); mark.mccarthy@drl.ox.ac.uk (MIM)

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Mark I. McCarthy for the GIANT consortium mail

    goncalo@umich.edu (GRA); joelh@broad.mit.edu (JNH); rjfl2@medschl.cam.ac.uk (RJFL); kari.stefansson@decode.is (KS); mohlke@med.unc.edu (KLM); ib1@sanger.ac.uk (IB); mark.mccarthy@drl.ox.ac.uk (MIM)

    Affiliations: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, , Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, National Institute for Health Research, Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

    X
  • Published: June 26, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000508

About the Authors

Cecilia M. Lindgren, Joshua C. Randall, Blanca M. Herrera, Alexander Drong, Andrew P. Morris, John F. Peden, Inga Prokopenko, Hugh Watkins for the PROCARDIS consortia, Mark I. McCarthy for the GIANT consortium
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, , Oxford, United Kingdom
Iris M. Heid, Claudia Lamina, Angela Doering, Guido Fischer, Christian Gieger, Harald Grallert, Rolf Holle, Thomas Illig, Thomas Meitinger, H.-Erich Wichmann
Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany
Iris M. Heid
Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
Claudia Lamina
Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Medical Genetics, Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria
Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Gudmar Thorleifsson, G. Bragi Walters, Augustine Kong, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson
deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland
Lu Qi, Frank B. Hu, David J. Hunter
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Lu Qi, Frank B. Hu, David J. Hunter
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Elizabeth K. Speliotes
Department of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Elizabeth K. Speliotes, Helen N. Lyon, Joel N. Hirschhorn
Metabolism Initiative and Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Cristen J. Willer, Anne U. Jackson, Paul Scheet, Laura J. Scott, Heather M. Stringham, Michael Boehnke
Department of Biostatistics, Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Blanca M. Herrera, Amanda J. Bennett, Christopher J. Groves, Fredrik Karpe, Mark I. McCarthy for the GIANT consortium
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Noha Lim, Kijoung Song, Xin Yuan, Vincent Mooser, Dawn M. Waterworth
Medical Genetics, Clinical Pharmacology and Discovery Medicine, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Paul Scheet, Gonçalo R. Abecasis
Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Nicole Soranzo, Lynn Cherkas, Massimo Mangino, Timothy D. Spector
Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
Nicole Soranzo, Suzannah J. Bumpstead, Felicity Payne, Leena Peltonen, Inês Barroso
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Najaf Amin, Yurii S. Aulchenko, Fernando Rivadeneira, Albert Hofman, Jacqueline C. M. Witteman, André G. Uitterlinden, Cornelia M. van Duijn
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
John C. Chambers, Lachlan Coin, Paul Elliott, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
Jian'an Luan, Jing Hua Zhao, Nita G. Forouhi, Manjinder S. Sandhu, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ruth J. F. Loos
MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Helen N. Lyon, Joel N. Hirschhorn
Divisions of Genetics and Endocrinology, Program in Genomics, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Fernando Rivadeneira, M. Carola Zillikens, Karol Estrada, Leonie C. Jacobs, André G. Uitterlinden
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Serena Sanna, Manuela Uda
Istituto di Neurogenetica e Neurofarmacologia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Cagliari, Italy
Nicholas J. Timpson, Debbie A. Lawlor, George Davey Smith
The MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
Peter Almgren, Leif Groop
Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes, and Endocrinology Research Unit, University Hospital Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
Stefania Bandinelli
Geriatric Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Firenze (ASF), Florence, Italy
Richard N. Bergman
Physiology and Biophysics, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
Lori L. Bonnycastle, Peter Chines, Michael R. Erdos, Mario A. Morken, Narisu Narisu, Amy J. Swift, Francis S. Collins
National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Stephen J. Chanock
Pediatric Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Cyrus Cooper, John W. Holloway, Karen Jameson
MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
Gabriel Crawford, Candace Guiducci, Leena Peltonen
Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
Anna Dominiczak
BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Alex S. F. Doney, Andrew D. Morris
Diabetes Research Group, Division of Medicine and Therapeutics, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom
Shah Ebrahim, Debbie A. Lawlor, Wendy L. McArdle, George Davey Smith
Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
Luigi Ferrucci, Toshiko Tanaka
Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Scott Grundy
Centre for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Centre, Dallas, Texas, United States of America
David Hadley, David P. Strachan
Division of Community Health Sciences, St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom
Anders Hamsten
Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Aki S. Havulinna, Pekka Jousilahti, Veikko Salomaa
KTL-National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
John W. Holloway
Division of Human Genetics, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
Bo Isomaa
Folkhälsan Research Center, Malmska Municipal Health Center and Hospital, Jakobstad, Finland
Johanna Kuusisto, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Markku Laakso, Leif Groop
Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Jaana Laitinen
Finnish Institute of Occpational Health, Oulu, Finland
G. Mark Lathrop
Centre National de Genotypage, Evry, France
Patricia Munroe, Chris Wallace, Mark J. Caulfield
The William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
Anna Nordström, Peter Nordström
Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Section for Sports Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Anna Nordström, Peter Nordström
Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Geriatrics, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden
Ben A. Oostra
Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Colin N. A. Palmer
Population Pharmacogenetics Group, Biomedical Research Centre, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom
John F. Peden, Hugh Watkins for the PROCARDIS consortia
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Frida Renström, Paul W. Franks
Genetic Epidemiology and Clinical Research Group, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section for Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden
Aimo Ruokonen
Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Manjinder S. Sandhu
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Angelo Scuteri
Unita' Operativa Geriatrica, Instituto Nazionale Ricovero e Cura per Anziani (INRCA) IRCCS, Rome, Italy
Kaisa Silander
Department of Molecular Medicine, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Tiinamaija Tuomi
Research Program of Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Peter Vollenweider, Gerard Waeber
Department of Medicine and Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland
Michael N. Weedon, Andrew T. Hattersley, Timothy M. Frayling
Genetics of Complex Traits, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, United Kingdom
Cuilin Zhang
Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Weihua Zhang
Ealing Hospital, Ealing Hospital National Health Service Trust, Southall, London, United Kingdom
Ian N. M. Day
Bristol Genetic Epidemiology Laboratories, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
Paul W. Franks
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section for Nutritional Research (Umeå Medical Biobank), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
Department of Child and Adolescent Health, National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland
Jaspal S. Kooner
National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom
Edward Lakatta, David Schlessinger
Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of Ameica
Nilesh J. Samani
Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom
Toshiko Tanaka
Medstar Research Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Diabetes Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Panos Deloukas
Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom
David J. Hunter
Program in Molecular and Genetic Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
David J. Hunter
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson
Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland
Joel N. Hirschhorn
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Karen L. Mohlke
Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
Mark I. McCarthy for the GIANT consortium
National Institute for Health Research, Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors from Decode Genetics Inc. own stocks and stock options in the company. VM, NL, KS and DMW are full-time employees of GlaxoSmithKline, a pharmaceutical company. The other authors have no competing interests to declare.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: C. Lindgren, I. Heid, J. Randall., C. Lamina, V. Steinthorsdottir, L. Peltonen, I. Barroso, M. McCarthy. Performed the experiments: J. Zhao, A. Bennett, G. Crawford, A. Dominiczak, C. Groves, C. Guiducci, F. Payne, J. Peden, L. Scott, K. Silander, H. Stringham, T. Tuomi, M. Uda, P. Vollenweider, G. Waeber, J. Witteman. Analyzed the data: C. Lindgren, I. Heid, J. Randall., C. Lamina, V. Steinthorsdottir., L. Qi, E. Speliotes, G. Thorleifsson, C. Willer, B. Herrera, A. Jackson, N. Lim, P. Scheet, N. Soranzo, N. Amin, Y. Aulchenko, J. Chambers, A. Drong, J. Luan, H. Lyon, F. Rivadeneira, S. Sanna, N. Timpson, M. Zillikens, P. Almgren, S. Bandinelli, A. Bennett, R. Bergman, L. Bonnycastle, S. Bumpstead, S. Chanock, L. Cherkas, P. Chines, L. Coin, C. Cooper, G. Crawford, A. Doering, A. Dominiczak, A. Doney, S. Ebrahim, P. Elliott, M. Erdos, K. Estrada, L. Ferrucci, G. Fischer, N. Forouhi, C. Gieger, H. Grallert, C. Groves, S. Grundy, C. Guiducci, D. Hadley, A. Hamsten, A. Havulinna, A. Hofman, R. Holle, J. Holloway, T. Illig, B. Isomaa, L. Jacobs, K. Jameson, P. Jousilahti, J. Kuusisto, J. Laitinen, G. Lathrop, D. Lawlor, M. Mangino, W. McArdle, T. Meitinger, M. Morken, A. Morris, P. Munroe, N. Narisu, Anna Nordström, P. Nordström, B. Oostra, C. Palmer, F. Payne, J. Peden, I. Prokopenko, F. Renström, A. Ruokonen, M. Sandhu, L. Scott, A. Scuteri, K. Silander, K. Song, X. Yuan, H. Stringham, A. Swift, C. Wallace, G. Walters, M. Weedon, C. Zhang, W. Zhang, A. Kong, D. Strachan, T. Tanaka, C. Van Duijn, D. Waterworth, T. Frayling, R. Loos. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: S. Chanock, L. Cherkas, P. Chines, C. Cooper, A. Doering, A. Doney, S. Ebrahim, A. Hamsten, B. Isomaa, P. Jousilahti, F. Karpe, J. Kuusisto, J. Laitinen, G. Lathrop, D. Lawlor, T. Meitinger, A. Morris, P. Munroe, A. Nordström, P. Nordström, B. Oostra, C. Palmer, F. Renström, A. Ruokonen, V. Salomaa, M. Sandhu, A. Scuteri, A. Swift, T. Tuomi, M. Uda, P. Vollenweider, G. Waeber, J. Witteman, M. Caulfield, F. Collins, G. Davey Smith, I. Day, P. Franks, A. Hattersley, F. Hu, M-R. Jarvelin, A. Kong, J. Kooner, M. Laakso, E. Lakatta, V. Mooser, A. Morris, L. Peltonen, N. Samani, T. Spector, D. Strachan, T. Tanaka, J. Tuomilehto, A. Uitterlinden, C. Van Duijn, N. Wareham, H. Watkins, D. Waterworth, M. Boehnke, P. Deloukas, L. Groop, D. Hunter, U.Thorsteinsdottir, D. Schlessinger, H. Wichmann, T. Frayling, G. Abecasis, J. Hirschhorn, R. Loos, K. Mohlke, I. Barroso, M. McCarthy. Wrote the paper: C. Lindgren, I. Heid, J. Randall., C. Lamina, V. Steinthorsdottir., L. Qi, E. Speliotes, G. Thorleifsson, C. Willer, C. Van Duijn, M. Boehnke, U.Thorsteinsdottir, G. Abecasis, J. Hirschhorn, R. Loos, K. Stefansson, K. Mohlke, I. Barroso, M. McCarthy. Directed the project: G. Abecasis, J. Hirschhorn, R. Loos, K. Stefansson, K. Mohlke, I. Barroso, M. McCarthy.