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Research Article

Ion Channel Clustering at the Axon Initial Segment and Node of Ranvier Evolved Sequentially in Early Chordates

  • Alexis S. Hill,

    Affiliations: Penn Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Mahoney Institute of Neurological Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Atsuo Nishino,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

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  • Koichi Nakajo,

    Affiliation: National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan

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  • Giuxin Zhang,

    Affiliations: Penn Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Mahoney Institute of Neurological Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Jaime R. Fineman,

    Affiliations: Penn Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Mahoney Institute of Neurological Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Michael E. Selzer,

    Affiliations: Penn Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Mahoney Institute of Neurological Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Office of Research and Development, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, D.C., United States of America

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  • Yasushi Okamura,

    Affiliation: Department of Integrative Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

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  • Edward C. Cooper mail

    edc@mail.med.upenn.edu

    Affiliations: Penn Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Mahoney Institute of Neurological Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Published: December 26, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000317

About the Authors

Alexis S. Hill, Giuxin Zhang, Jaime R. Fineman, Michael E. Selzer, Edward C. Cooper
Penn Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Alexis S. Hill, Giuxin Zhang, Jaime R. Fineman, Michael E. Selzer, Edward C. Cooper
Mahoney Institute of Neurological Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Atsuo Nishino
Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
Koichi Nakajo
National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan
Michael E. Selzer
Office of Research and Development, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, D.C., United States of America
Yasushi Okamura
Department of Integrative Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

Corresponding Author

Email: edc@mail.med.upenn.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ASH AN KN ECC. Performed the experiments: ASH AN KN GZ JRF YO ECC. Analyzed the data: ASH AN KN GZ JRF MES YO ECC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AN KN GZ MES YO ECC. Wrote the paper: ECC.