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Research Article

Mutation and Evolutionary Rates in Adélie Penguins from the Antarctic

  • Craig D. Millar,

    Affiliation: Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

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  • Andrew Dodd,

    Affiliation: Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Molecular BioSciences, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

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  • Jennifer Anderson,

    Affiliation: Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Molecular BioSciences, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

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  • Gillian C. Gibb,

    Affiliation: Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Molecular BioSciences, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

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  • Peter A. Ritchie,

    Affiliation: Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Molecular BioSciences, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Current address: School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand

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  • Carlo Baroni,

    Affiliations: Dipartmento Scienze della Terra, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy, Consiglio Nazionale Ricerche, Centro Studio Geologia Strutturale, Pisa, Italy

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  • Michael D. Woodhams,

    Affiliation: Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University Palmerston North, Palmerston North, New Zealand

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  • Michael D. Hendy,

    Affiliation: Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University Palmerston North, Palmerston North, New Zealand

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  • David M. Lambert mail

    d.lambert@griffith.edu.au

    Affiliation: Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Molecular BioSciences, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Current address: Griffith School of Environment and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Australia

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  • Published: October 03, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000209

About the Authors

Craig D. Millar
Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Andrew Dodd, Jennifer Anderson, Gillian C. Gibb, Peter A. Ritchie, David M. Lambert
Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Molecular BioSciences, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand
Carlo Baroni
Dipartmento Scienze della Terra, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Carlo Baroni
Consiglio Nazionale Ricerche, Centro Studio Geologia Strutturale, Pisa, Italy
Michael D. Woodhams, Michael D. Hendy
Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University Palmerston North, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Corresponding Author

Email: d.lambert@griffith.edu.au

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CDM DML. Performed the experiments: AD JA GCG PAR. Analyzed the data: CDM AD PAR CB MDW MDH DML. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AD CB MDW MDH. Wrote the paper: CDM DML. Contributed to the fieldwork: GCG PAR CB. Contributed to the development of the mathematical model: MDW MDH. Conducted the field studies: CDM DML.