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Research Article

Discerning the Ancestry of European Americans in Genetic Association Studies

  • Alkes L Price mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: aprice@broad.mit.edu (ALP), reich@broad.mit.edu (DR), joelh@broad.mit.edu (JNH)

    Affiliations: Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Johannah Butler,

    Affiliations: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Genomics and Divisions of Genetics and Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Nick Patterson,

    Affiliation: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Cristian Capelli,

    Affiliation: Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Vincenzo L Pascali,

    Affiliation: Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Istituto di Medicina Legale, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy

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  • Francesca Scarnicci,

    Affiliation: Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Istituto di Medicina Legale, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy

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  • Andres Ruiz-Linares,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Galton Laboratory, University College London, United Kingdom

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  • Leif Groop,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes and Endocrinology, Lund University, University Hospital Malmo, Malmo, Sweden

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  • Angelica A Saetta,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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  • Penelope Korkolopoulou,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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  • Uri Seligsohn,

    Affiliation: Amalia Biron Research Institute of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel

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  • Alicja Waliszewska,

    Affiliation: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Christine Schirmer,

    Affiliation: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Kristin Ardlie,

    Affiliation: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Alexis Ramos,

    Affiliations: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Genomics and Divisions of Genetics and Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • James Nemesh,

    Affiliations: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Genomics and Divisions of Genetics and Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Lori Arbeitman,

    Affiliations: Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Genomics and Divisions of Genetics and Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • David B Goldstein,

    Affiliation: Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Center for Population Genomics and Pharmacogenetics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • David Reich equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: David Reich, Joel N Hirschhorn

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: aprice@broad.mit.edu (ALP), reich@broad.mit.edu (DR), joelh@broad.mit.edu (JNH)

    Affiliations: Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Joel N Hirschhorn equal contributor mail

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: David Reich, Joel N Hirschhorn

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: aprice@broad.mit.edu (ALP), reich@broad.mit.edu (DR), joelh@broad.mit.edu (JNH)

    Affiliations: Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Genomics and Divisions of Genetics and Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Published: January 18, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0030236

About the Authors

Alkes L Price, David Reich, Joel N Hirschhorn
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Alkes L Price, Johannah Butler, Nick Patterson, Alicja Waliszewska, Christine Schirmer, Kristin Ardlie, Alexis Ramos, James Nemesh, Lori Arbeitman, David Reich, Joel N Hirschhorn
Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
Johannah Butler, Alexis Ramos, James Nemesh, Lori Arbeitman, Joel N Hirschhorn
Program in Genomics and Divisions of Genetics and Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Cristian Capelli
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Vincenzo L Pascali, Francesca Scarnicci
Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Istituto di Medicina Legale, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy
Andres Ruiz-Linares
Department of Biology, Galton Laboratory, University College London, United Kingdom
Leif Groop
Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes and Endocrinology, Lund University, University Hospital Malmo, Malmo, Sweden
Angelica A Saetta, Penelope Korkolopoulou
Department of Pathology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Uri Seligsohn
Amalia Biron Research Institute of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
David B Goldstein
Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Center for Population Genomics and Pharmacogenetics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ALP, JB, DR, and JNH conceived and designed the experiments. ALP, JB, AW, CS, AR, JN, and LA performed the experiments. ALP analyzed the data. ALP, NP, CC, VLP, FS, ARL, LG, AAS, PK, US, KA, DBG, DR, and JNH contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. ALP, DR, and JNH wrote the paper.