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Research Article

Y Chromosome Lineage- and Village-Specific Genes on Chromosomes 1p22 and 6q27 Control Visceral Leishmaniasis in Sudan

  • E. Nancy Miller equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: E. Nancy Miller, Manal Fadl

    Affiliation: Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Manal Fadl equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: E. Nancy Miller, Manal Fadl

    Affiliations: Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

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  • Hiba S Mohamed,

    Affiliations: Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

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  • Abier Elzein,

    Affiliation: Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

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  • Sarra E Jamieson,

    Affiliation: Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Heather J Cordell,

    Affiliation: Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    ¤ Current address: Institute of Human Genetics, University of Newcastle, International Centre for Life, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

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  • Christopher S Peacock,

    Affiliation: Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Michaela Fakiola,

    Affiliation: Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Madhuri Raju,

    Affiliation: Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Eltahir A Khalil,

    Affiliation: Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

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  • Ahmed Elhassan,

    Affiliation: Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

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  • Ahmed M Musa,

    Affiliation: Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

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  • Muntaser E Ibrahim,

    Affiliation: Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

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  • Jenefer M Blackwell mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jennie.blackwell@cimr.cam.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Published: May 11, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0030071

About the Authors

E. Nancy Miller, Manal Fadl, Hiba S Mohamed, Sarra E Jamieson, Heather J Cordell, Christopher S Peacock, Michaela Fakiola, Madhuri Raju, Jenefer M Blackwell
Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Manal Fadl, Hiba S Mohamed, Abier Elzein, Eltahir A Khalil, Ahmed Elhassan, Ahmed M Musa, Muntaser E Ibrahim
Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

Corresponding Author

Email: jennie.blackwell@cimr.cam.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

E. N. Miller helped supervise the study in the laboratory, participated in the fieldwork, supervised the data entry and looked after the database, and carried out most of the genetic statistical analysis. M. Fadl, H. S. Mohamed, and A. Elzein assisted with the field work and preparation of DNA, and carried out the genotyping for the primary genome scan. M. Fadl, M. Fakiola, and M. Raju carried out the genotyping for the refined mapping. S. E. Jamieson helped supervise the study in the laboratory. H. J. Cordell advised on genetic statistical analysis, and carried out the parent-of-origin analyses and locus-specific λS calculations. C. S. Peacock assisted with field work and laboratory supervision. E. A. Khalil, A. M. Musa, and A. Elzein carried out the clinical evaluation of patients in the field. A. Elhassan established the field study site, and continues to mentor ongoing research at the Institute for Endemic Diseases and in the field. M. E. Ibrahim conceived the study, supervised the research in Sudan, and organized and participated in the field work. J. M. Blackwell conceived the study, participated in the field work, supervised the research, and prepared the manuscript. A. Elhassan is the longtime mentor for all authors of this study.