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Research Article

Genetic Analysis of Completely Sequenced Disease-Associated MHC Haplotypes Identifies Shuffling of Segments in Recent Human History

  • James A Traherne equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: James A Traherne, Roger Horton, Anne N Roberts, Marcos M Miretti

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Immunology Division, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Roger Horton equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: James A Traherne, Roger Horton, Anne N Roberts, Marcos M Miretti

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Anne N Roberts equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: James A Traherne, Roger Horton, Anne N Roberts, Marcos M Miretti

    Affiliation: Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Marcos M Miretti equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: James A Traherne, Roger Horton, Anne N Roberts, Marcos M Miretti

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Matthew E Hurles,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • C. Andrew Stewart,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Immunology Division, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Jennifer L Ashurst,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Alexey M Atrazhev,

    Affiliation: Alberta Diabetes Institute (ADI), Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Dermatology and Cutaneous Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

    X
  • Penny Coggill,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Sophie Palmer,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Jeff Almeida,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Sarah Sims,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Laurens G Wilming,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Jane Rogers,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Pieter J. de Jong,

    Affiliation: Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California, United States of America

    X
  • Mary Carrington,

    Affiliation: Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • John F Elliott,

    Affiliation: Alberta Diabetes Institute (ADI), Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Dermatology and Cutaneous Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

    X
  • Stephen Sawcer,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • John A Todd,

    Affiliation: Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • John Trowsdale,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Immunology Division, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Stephan Beck mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: beck@sanger.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Published: January 27, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020009

About the Authors

James A Traherne, C. Andrew Stewart, John Trowsdale
Department of Pathology, Immunology Division, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Roger Horton, Marcos M Miretti, Matthew E Hurles, Jennifer L Ashurst, Penny Coggill, Sophie Palmer, Jeff Almeida, Sarah Sims, Laurens G Wilming, Jane Rogers, Stephan Beck
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Anne N Roberts, John A Todd
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Alexey M Atrazhev, John F Elliott
Alberta Diabetes Institute (ADI), Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Dermatology and Cutaneous Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
Pieter J. de Jong
Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California, United States of America
Mary Carrington
Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America
Stephen Sawcer
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: beck@sanger.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

J. Rogers, P. J. de Jong, J. F. Elliott, S. Sawcer, J. A. Todd, J. Trowsdale, and S. Beck conceived and designed the experiments. J. A. Traherne, C. A. Stewart, A. M. Atrazhev, P. Coggill, S. Palmer, J. Almeida, S. Sims, and J. F. Elliott performed the experiments. J. A. Traherne, R. Horton, A. N. Roberts, M. M. Miretti, M. E. Hurles, C. A. Stewart, J. L. Ashurst, A. M. Atrazhev, P. Coggill, S. Palmer, J. Almeida, S. Sims, L. G. Wilming, J. Rogers, P. J. de Jong, J. F. Elliott, S. Sawcer, J. A. Todd, J. Trowsdale, and S. Beck analyzed the data. J. L. Ashurst, S. Palmer, J. Almeida, J. Rogers, P. J. de Jong, M. Carrington, J. F. Elliott, J. A. Todd, and S. Beck contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. J. A. Traherne, R. Horton, A. N. Roberts, M. M. Miretti, M. E. Hurles, C. A. Stewart, P. Coggill, P. J. de Jong, J. F. Elliott, S. Sawcer, J. A. Todd, J. Trowsdale, and S. Beck wrote the paper.